Biomaterials, substitutes, and tissue engineering in bone repair: current and future concepts
Cuttlefish bone (CB) is an attractive natural biomaterial source to obtain hydroxyapatite (HAp). In this study, a porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold incorporating CB-derived HAp (CB-HAp) powder was fabricated using the solvent casting and particulate leaching method. The presence of CB-HAp in PCL/CB-HAp scaffold was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and porosity analysis showed that the average pore dimension of the fabricated scaffold was approximately 200-300 μm, with ∼85% porosity, and that the compressive modulus increased after addition of CB-HAp powders. In vitro tests such as cell proliferation assay, cytotoxicity analysis, cell attachment observations, and alkaline phosphatase activity assays showed that the PCL/CB-HAp scaffold could improve the proliferation, viability, adherence, and osteoblast differentiation rate of MG-63 cells. When surgically implanted into rabbit calvarial bone defects, consistent with the in vitro results, PCL/CB-HAp scaffold implantation resulted in significantly higher new bone formation than did implantation of PCL alone. These findings suggest that addition of CB-HAp powder to the PCL scaffold can improve cellular response and that the PCL/CB-HAp composite scaffold has great potential for use in bone tissue engineering.