Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for many of the cases of bacterial blood infection, meningitis, and pneumonia which cause the deaths of more than 1 million children annually in the developing world. It is therefore, second to measles, the developing world's single most devastating cause of child mortality. 10 years ago, the National Academy of Sciences and the National Institutes of Health rated a pneumococcal vaccine for young children the top priority vaccine for least developed countries. Efforts need to be stepped up to produce a good pneumococcal vaccine, especially since the only vaccine currently available is largely ineffective in infants. The technology exists to produce such a vaccine, its clinical development is under way, and there are strong chances of soon realizing its creation and application in the field. A long list of clinical trials of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines for young children is presented.