A physical simulator for endoscopic endonasal drilling techniques: technical note.


In this paper, the authors present a physical model developed to teach surgeons the requisite drilling techniques when using an endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) to the skull base. EEA is increasingly used for treating pathologies of the ventral and ventrolateral cranial base. Endonasal drilling is a unique skill in terms of the instruments used, the long… (More)
DOI: 10.3171/2015.3.JNS1552