A phylogeny of extant penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes) combining morphology and mitochondrial sequences

  title={A phylogeny of extant penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes) combining morphology and mitochondrial sequences},
  author={Sara Bertelli and Norberto Pedro Giannini},
The phylogenetic relationships among the penguins have received little attention, despite their well‐known anatomy and the conspicuous nature of the group. Previous attempts have included datasets limited to few, mostly osteological characters, and one study was based on integumentary and breeding characters. We developed a morphological matrix comprising 159 morphological characters of osteology (70 characters), myology (15), digestive tract (1), integument (66), and breeding (7 characters… 

Phylogenetic Characters in the Humerus and Tarsometatarsus of Penguins

The present review aims to improve the scope and coverage of the phylogenetic matrices currently in use, as well as explore some aspects of the relationships among Paleogene penguins, using two key skeletal elements, the humerus and tarsometatarsus, using a corrected subset of morphological characters.

Patterning and Microstructure of Penguin Plumage APPROVED BY SUPERVISING COMMITTEE:

The synapomorphies recovered from the reassessed dataset differed relative to those previously recovered for extant penguin clades, and most of the differences involved characters that were rescored or rewritten due to inconsistencies between the original scoring and images or drawings of live birds.

Redescription and Phylogenetic Position of the Early Miocene Penguin Paraptenodytes Antarcticus from Patagonia

The placement of Paraptenodytes outside the crown clade of extant penguins reveals the order in which many spheniscid synapomorphies were acquired and lends support to the hypothesis that modern penguins had Subantarctic ancestors.

A new Miocene penguin from Patagonia and its phylogenetic relationships

We describe a new medium−sized penguin, Madrynornis mirandus gen. et sp. nov., from the early late Miocene Puerto Madryn Formation, Chubut Province, Argentina. Although it is evident that extant and


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Scorpion higher phylogeny and classification, taxonomic anarchy, and standards for peer review in online publishing

Pending the outcome of a rigorous phylogenetic analysis, published according to acceptable standards of scholarship in a peer‐reviewed journal, the suprageneric classification of Scorpiones is reinstated and all changes to the classification proposed by Soleglad, Fet and colleagues since 2001 are rejected.

Chatham Island Paleocene fossils provide insight into the palaeobiology, evolution, and diversity of early penguins (Aves, Sphenisciformes)

Numerous skeletal remains recovered in situ from the late early to middle Paleocene Takatika Grit of Chatham Island, New Zealand, are among the oldest known fossils attributed to the penguin clade

Analysis of spheniscid humerus and tarsometatarsus morphological variability using DAISY automated image recognition

The preliminary results suggest that these elements can allow reliable identifications for most taxa, but that the tarsometatarsus is on the whole a better element for this purpose than the humerus.

A review of Australian fossil penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes)

Five named species are based on type specimens of Eocene, Miocene—Pliocene and Holocene age collected from South Australia, Victoria and Tasmania, and the phylogenetic affinities of these taxa remain unresolved.

Behavioural evolution in penguins does not reflect phylogeny

This analysis suggested that the “proto‐penguin” probably had a similar life history to current temperate penguins but few ritualized behaviours, and a southern, cool‐temperate origin of penguins is suggested.




A phylogeny of extant penguins (18 forms) was estimated on the basis of 70 integumentary and breeding characters, which recovered monophyly of Sphenisciformes and all the traditional genera.

The deep divergences of neornithine birds: a phylogenetic analysis of morphological characters

A broad array of morphological characters (including both cranial and postcranial characters) are analyzed for an ingroup densely sampling Neornithes, with crown clade outgroups used to polarize these characters.

A phylogeny of the tinamous (aves: palaeognathiformes) based on integumentary characters.

A cladistic analysis of the tinamous, including the currently recognized species and some distinct subspecies, was conducted based on 80 integumentary characters from adult and natal plumage, ramphoteca (corneum sheath of bill), and podoteca (horny scales of legs), indicating a high degree of congruence between the two data sets.


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A Phylogeny of the Gulls (Aves: Larinae) Inferred from Osteological and Integumentary Characters

It is found that osteological evidence is particularly important for determining higher‐level structure, whereas integumentary evidence is important for resolving lower‐level relationships within the gull group and it is argued that casual dismissal of Integumentary characters as “too labile” is unwarranted.

A phylogeny of megachiropteran bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) based on direct optimization analysis of one nuclear and four mitochondrial genes

The results indicate that, within Megachiroptera, nectarivory and cave‐dwelling originated several times, but echolocation evolved only once, and that Melonycteris is the sister group of the clade containing all the other genera.

Phylogenetics of the lizard genus Tropidurus (Squamata: Tropiduridae: Tropidurinae): direct optimization, descriptive efficiency, and sensitivity analysis of congruence between molecular data and morphology.

A sensitivity analysis demonstrated that equal weighting of indels, transitions, transversions, and morphological change provided the most congruent solution between the molecular and the morphological data partitions.

Congruent Avian Phylogenies Inferred from Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA Sequences

The data sets support a traditional avian taxonomy, with paleognaths (ratites and tinamous) occupying a basal position and with songbirds more derived and forming a monophyletic group, and it is shown that turtles may be a better outgroup for birds than crocodilians because of their slower rate of sequence evolution.


This work combines seven seabird phylogenies to generate a comprehensive supertree for the Procellariiformes using matrix representation with parsimony, which represents a conservative estimate of combined relationships presented in the original seven source trees.

Tertiary plotopterids (Aves, Plotopteridae) and a novel hypothesis on the phylogenetic relationships of penguins (Spheniscidae)

It is shown that assignment of plotopterids to pelecaniform birds does not necessarily preclude them from being the sister taxon of penguins, and derived characters are discussed which support this novel hypothesis.