A phase II dose‐ranging study of topical resiquimod to treat actinic keratosis

@article{Szeimies2008API,
  title={A phase II dose‐ranging study of topical resiquimod to treat actinic keratosis},
  author={R M Szeimies and Jens Bichel and J‐P. Ortonne and E Stockfleth and J. Lee and T C Meng},
  journal={British Journal of Dermatology},
  year={2008},
  volume={159}
}
Background  Resiquimod, a toll‐like receptor 7 and 8 agonist, may be effective as a topical treatment of actinic keratosis (AK). 
Topical pharmacotherapy for skin cancer: part I. Pharmacology.
Topical pharmacotherapy for skin cancer: part II. Clinical applications.
Pharmacotherapeutic Management of Actinic Keratosis: Focus on Newer Topical Agents
TLDR
The newer agents, diclofenac gel and ingenol mebutate, appear to be more tolerable than cryotherapy and 5- fluorouracil; however, comparative studies regarding efficacy are not available.
A Review of Existing Therapies for Actinic Keratosis: Current Status and Future Directions
TLDR
Given the aging population and therefore the increasing incidence of AK and cutaneous field carcinogenesis, further updates on the long-term efficacy of current therapies and new investigational agents are critical to guide treatment choice.
Therapeutic strategies for actinic keratoses--a systematic review.
TLDR
This review defines the state of art for destructive and topical treatment options based on randomized trials which meet criteria like >30 patients in an intention-to-treat analysis, an easily reproducible study design with responses rated towards treatment as the major objective, measured as complete remission.
Pharmacotherapy of actinic keratosis
TLDR
The goals of treatment are to eliminate the AKs, minimizing their risk of progression to invasive SCC, while pursuing good cosmetic outcomes and prevention is the most important treatment modality for AKs.
Current issues in the management of actinic keratosis.
Targeted and Personalized Therapy for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers
AK lesions are caused by chronic ultraviolet radiation exposure, and the presence of two or more AK lesions along with photodamage should raise consideration of a diagnosis of field cancerization.
Epidermal Precancerous Lesions and In Situ Malignancies
The main topic of this chapter is the skin and mucosal lesions that mainly show histologic epithelial dysplasia and pose a risk for the development of keratinocytic epidermal malignancies. Different
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 19 REFERENCES
Gene expression in actinic keratoses: pharmacological modulation by imiquimod
TLDR
Imiquimod, which belongs to the new class of immune‐response modifiers, was recently shown to be effective in the treatment of AKs, a premalignant lesions that can progress into squamous cell carcinoma.
Vehicle‐controlled, randomized, double‐blind study to assess safety and efficacy of imiquimod 5% cream applied once daily 3 days per week in one or two courses of treatment of actinic keratoses on the head
TLDR
The mainstay treatment for actinic keratosis is still believed to be chemotherapy-free, with a small number of patients needing to be admitted to hospital for further treatment.
Imiquimod‐induced regression of actinic keratosis is associated with infiltration by T lymphocytes and dendritic cells: a randomized controlled trial
TLDR
The therapeutic effects of imiquimod are likely to involve the provocation of a cutaneous immune response against abnormal cells, an assumption based on a strong correlation between complete clearance rates and the severity of the local skin reactions.
Epidemiology of solar keratoses
TLDR
Solar keratoses (SKs) or actinic keratose are common dysplastic epidermal lesions which occur in pale‐skinned individuals who are chronically exposed to intense sunlight and constitute a major public health problem in such individuals.
Immune-mediated changes in actinic keratosis following topical treatment with imiquimod 5% cream
TLDR
Data suggest that topical application of imiquimod stimulates cells in the skin to secrete cytokines and chemokines that lead to inflammatory cell influx into the lesions and subsequent apoptotic and immune cell-mediated destruction of lesions.
Premalignant keratinocytic neoplasms.
  • R. Schwartz
  • Medicine
    Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • 1996
Randomized, Single-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Topical Application of the Immune Response Modulator Resiquimod in Healthy Adults
TLDR
It is suggested that resiquimod is a potent topically active immune response modifier that significantly enhances the cutaneous immune response.
Histopathology of incipient intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma ("actinic keratosis").
  • C. Cockerell
  • Medicine
    Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • 2000
TLDR
AKs are malignant neoplasms in evolution and demonstrate histologic and molecular genetic features of malignancy and it is proposed that the term actinic (solar) keratosis be eliminated.
...
...