A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Squalamine Ointment for tinea capitis Treatment
PURPOSE Squalamine is an antitumor agent that has been shown to have antiangiogenic activity in animal models. This Phase I/IIA study was designed to assess the safety, clinical response, and pharmacokinetics of squalamine when administered as a 5-day continuous infusion in conjunction with standard chemotherapy every 3 weeks in patients with stage IIIB (pleural effusion) or stage IV non-small cell lung cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Patients with chemotherapy-naive non-small cell lung cancer were treated with escalating doses of squalamine in combination with standard doses of paclitaxel and carboplatin. Paclitaxel and carboplatin were administered on day 1, followed by squalamine as a continuous infusion on days 1-5, every 21 days. RESULTS A total of 45 patients were enrolled (18 patients in the Phase I dose escalation arm and 27 in the Phase IIA arm). The starting dose of squalamine was 100 mg/m(2)/day and escalated to 400 mg/m(2)/day; two of three patients at 400 mg/m(2)/day had dose-limiting toxicity that included grade 3/4 arthralgia, myalgia, and neutropenia. On the basis of safety and toxicity, 300 mg/m(2)/day was selected as the Phase II dose of squalamine in this combination regimen. An additional 27 patients (a total of 33) were enrolled according to the protocol treatment schema at 300 mg/m(2)/day. There was no pharmacokinetic evidence of drug interactions for the combination of squalamine, carboplatin, and paclitaxel. Forty-three patients were evaluable for response. Partial tumor responses were observed in 12 (28%) of these patients; an additional 8 evaluable patients (19%) were reported to have stable disease. For all of the patients treated, the median survival was 10.0 months; and 1-year survival was 40%. CONCLUSIONS The combination of squalamine given continuously daily for 5 days, with paclitaxel and carboplatin given on day 1, is well tolerated. Patient survival data and the safety profile of this drug combination suggests that the use of squalamine given at its maximum tolerated dose with cytotoxic chemotherapy should be explored further as a potentially effective therapeutic strategy for patients with stage IIIB or IV non-small cell lung cancer.