A peptide carrier for the delivery of biologically active proteins into mammalian cells

@article{Morris2001APC,
  title={A peptide carrier for the delivery of biologically active proteins into mammalian cells},
  author={May C. Morris and Julien Depollier and Jean M{\'e}ry and Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric Heitz and Gilles Divita},
  journal={Nature Biotechnology},
  year={2001},
  volume={19},
  pages={1173-1176}
}
The development of peptide drugs and therapeutic proteins is limited by the poor permeability and the selectivity of the cell membrane. There is a growing effort to circumvent these problems by designing strategies to deliver full-length proteins into a large number of cells. A series of small protein domains, termed protein transduction domains (PTDs), have been shown to cross biological membranes efficiently and independently of transporters or specific receptors, and to promote the delivery… 
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A potentially general approach to engineering cell-permeable proteins by genetically grafting a short cell-penetrating peptide to an exposed loop of a protein of interest, exhibiting enhanced proteolytic stability and cellular entry efficiency is reported.
Gramicidin A-based peptide vector for intracellular protein delivery.
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This work studied the ability of a series of membrane-active amphipathic peptides, based on the gramicidin A sequence, to transport a model protein across the eukaryotic cell membrane, and positively charged Cys-containing peptide P10C demonstrated the most effective beta-galactosidase intracellular delivery.
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The ability of selected proteins to penetrate cells was initially observed in 1988 and attributed to naturally occurring transcription factors that were found to be capable of crossing plasma
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TLDR
A novel family of cell-penetrating peptides named Vectocell peptides, originating from human heparin binding proteins and/or anti-DNA antibodies, once conjugated to a therapeutic molecule, can deliver the molecule to either the cytoplasm or the nucleus of mammalian cells.
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