PURPOSE To describe and evaluate the establishment of the first VCT services for the Deaf in Africa. METHOD Operational research methods were used to document programme establishment. The demographics of deaf VCT clients were compared with hearing clients at the same sites as well as where clients had learned of the service, HIV risks, and HIV test results. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used. RESULTS During the two year period (January 2004 to December 2005) 1709 Deaf and 1649 hearing clients were seen at three Deaf VCT sites. The majority of Deaf clients in this sample learned of the services through the peer education programme. Data indicate that Deaf VCT clients are as much at risk of HIV from sexual transmission as their hearing counterparts and that Deaf persons seeking VCT services have an HIV prevalence of 7%, similar to the national rate of 6.7%. CONCLUSIONS The Deaf in Kenya are at risk of HIV and there is an urgent need for Deaf-friendly HIV services, supplemented by peer education programmes. This is the first published report describing HIV services run by the Deaf for the Deaf in the developing world.