W hat is the toughest recognition problem in biology? Arguably, it is that faced by antifreeze or thermal hysteresis proteins. These proteins provide a broad range of organisms with protection against freezing damage by depressing, in a noncolligative manner, the freezing point of water. They do this by binding to nascent ice nuclei and inhibiting their… (More)
Fig. 1. ThreeAFP structural motifs. The IBS is oriented uppermost. (Top) Type III AFP from ocean pout (PDB ID code 1MSI) (18). Alanine 16, a key residue in the IBS, is indicated in stick representation. (Middle) Type I AFP fromwinterflounder (PDB ID code 1WFA) (19). (Bottom) AFP from the snowflea (PDB ID code 2PNE) (6).