HD-PTP Is a Catalytically Inactive Tyrosine Phosphatase Due to a Conserved Divergence in Its Phosphatase Domain
To investigate a potential role of protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) in myocardial growth and signaling, a degenerate primer-based reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction approach was used to isolate cDNAs for proteins that contain a PTPase catalytic domain. Among the 16 cDNA clones isolated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from total neonatal rat cardiomyocyte RNA, one, designated PTP-TD14, was unique. Subsequent isolation and sequencing of a full-length PTP-TD14 cDNA confirmed that it encodes a novel 164-kDa protein, p164(PTP-TD14). The C-terminal region contains the PTP-like domain, whereas the N-terminal region shows no homology to any known mammalian protein. However, this region is homologous to a yeast protein, BRO1, that is involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Like BRO1, p164(PTP-TD14) contains a proline-rich region with two putative SH3-domain binding sites. By Northern blot analysis, PTP-TD14 is expressed as a 5.3-kilobase pair transcript, not only in neonatal heart but also in many adult rat tissues. When expressed in either COS-7 or NIH-3T3 cells, p164(PTP-TD14) localizes to the cytoplasm in association with vesicle-like structures. Expression of p164(PTP-TD14) in NIH-3T3 cells inhibits Ha-ras-mediated transformation more than 3-fold. This inhibitory activity is localized to the C-terminal PTPase homology domain, since no inhibition of Ha-ras-mediated focus formation was observed with a PTP-TD14 mutant, in which the putative catalytic activity was presumably inactivated by a point mutation. These findings indicate that PTP-TD14 encodes a novel protein that may be critically involved in regulating Ha-ras-dependent cell growth.