A novel mechanism for jumping in the indian antHarpegnathos saltator (Jerdon) (Formicidae, Ponerinae)

  title={A novel mechanism for jumping in the indian antHarpegnathos saltator (Jerdon) (Formicidae, Ponerinae)},
  author={Cesare Baroni Urbani and George Stephen Boyan and Albert Blarer and J. P. J. Billen and T. M. Musthak Ali},
The Indian antHarpegnathos saltator may be unique among insects in using its jumping capacity not only as an escape mechanism but also as a normal means of locomotion, and for catching its prey in flight. High-speed cinematography used to analyse the various phases of the jump suggests thatHarpegnathos employs a novel jumping mechanism to mediate these behaviours: namely the synchronous activation of its middle and hindlegs. Electrophysiological recordings from muscles or nerves in pairs of… 

Effects of Abdominal Rotation on Jump Performance in the Ant Gigantiops destructor (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

The hypothesis that abdominal rotation provides additional thrust as the maximum distance, maximum height, and takeoff velocity of jumps were reduced by restricting the movement of the abdomen compared with the jumps of unmanipulated and control treatment ants is supported.

Jumping in a wingless stick insect, Timema chumash (Phasmatodea, Timematodea, Timematidae)

  • M. Burrows
  • Biology
    Journal of Experimental Biology
  • 2008
SUMMARY The stick insect Timema chumash belongs to a sub-order of the phasmids that is thought to have diverged early from other stick insects, and which is restricted to the southwest of North

Jumping performance of planthoppers (Hemiptera, Issidae)

  • M. Burrows
  • Biology
    Journal of Experimental Biology
  • 2009
The structure of the hind limbs and the kinematics of their movements that propel jumping in planthopper insects (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Fulgoroidea, Issidae) were analysed and it was found that Issus ranks alongside the froghopper Philaenus as one of the best insect jumpers.

Jumping strategies and performance in shore bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Saldidae)

  • M. Burrows
  • Biology
    Journal of Experimental Biology
  • 2009
The jumping movements of the hemipteran shore bug (Saldula saltatoria, sub-order Heteroptera, family Saldidae) were analysed from sequences of images captured at 5000 frames s–1, indicating that a catapult mechanism must be used in which the trochanteral depressor muscles contract and store energy in advance of a jump.

Jumping mechanisms and performance of pygmy mole crickets (Orthoptera, Tridactylidae)

SUMMARY Pygmy mole crickets live in burrows at the edge of water and jump powerfully to avoid predators such as the larvae and adults of tiger beetles that inhabit the same microhabitat. Adults are

Jumping mechanisms and performance of snow fleas (Mecoptera, Boreidae)

  • M. Burrows
  • Biology
    Journal of Experimental Biology
  • 2011
SUMMARY Flightless snow fleas (snow scorpion flies, Mecoptera, Boreidae) live as adults during northern hemisphere winters, often jumping and walking on the surface of snow. Their jumping mechanisms

Jumping and take-off in a winged scorpion fly (Mecoptera, Panorpa communis)

  • M. Burrows
  • Biology
    Journal of Experimental Biology
  • 2019
High-speed video analysis of jumping in a species of scorpion fly shows that it uses the middle and hind legs for propulsion, and accompanying movements of the wings contribute little to take-off.

Jumping performance of froghopper insects

  • M. Burrows
  • Biology
    Journal of Experimental Biology
  • 2006
The kinematics of jumping in froghopper insects were analysed from high speed sequences of images captured at rates up to 8000 s-1 to find the best jumps by Philaenus, which requires an energy output of 136 μJ, a power output of 155 mW and exerts a force of 66 mN.

Regulation of reproductive plasticity in the ant Harpegnathos saltator

The results suggest that caste determination originally occurred late in the larval stage in the ancestral condition but has shifted earlier in development in species that began to acquire advanced characteristics, including queen-worker dimorphism as well as multiple worker castes.

Take-off mechanisms in parasitoid wasps

High-speed video analyses of the natural behaviour of parasitoid wasps revealed three strategies used to launch the insects into the air: propulsion by rapid leg movements, propulsion by flapping wing movements and a combination of the two.



The energetics of the jump of the locust Schistocerca gregaria.

It is shown that the metathoracic leg is able to extend at 7 times the normal rate with losses of about 20%.

Jump of the Oriental Rat Flea Xenopsylla cheopis (Roths.)

In an attempt to explain the mechanism of the jump of the flea, the morphology of Xenopsylla cheopis is re-examined, particularly the exoskeleton and musculature is examined, and a series of high speed cine films are combined.

Multiple jumping behaviors in the antHarpegnathos saltator

34, 509 (1980) 7. Binneman, P. H., Sandmeyer, U., Schmuck, E.: Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch. 176, 253 (1983) 8. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft: Polychlorierte Biphenyle. Bestandesaufnahme tiber

The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma

The general character of “The Fauna of British India” is so well known, and has been so frequently commented on, that it is only necessary to say that the present half-volume is similar to those which have preceded it, and that the high character of the series is fully maintained.

The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma

The remainder of the volume will comprise all, or nearly all, the remaining families of the division Gymnocerata, thus leaving the bulk of the water-bugs for a third volume, which will complete the subject as far as the Heteroptera are concerned.

The internal phylogeny of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

A reconstruction of the ground plan of the Formicidae indicated that the most specialized of all recent ants are the members of the subfamily Dorylinae and the least specialized ones are the monotypic Apomyrminae.

Visually mediated snapping in the bulldog ant: A perceptual ambiguity between size and distance

  • S. Via
  • Biology
    Journal of comparative physiology
  • 2004
These experiments with the isolated head preparation show that the bulldog ant cannot judge the absolute distance of a target in the visual field when limited to primary visual cues, and suggest that two eyes are better than one simply because they provide more input.

The jump of the flea: a study of the energetics and a model of the mechanism.

The anatomy of the jumping mechanism has been re-examined and its action studied by high-speed cinematography and operations on live fleas have provided evidence in support of the proposed mechanism.

The locust jump. II. Neural circuits of the motor programme.

Neural circuits which co-ordinate the motorneurones of the meta-thoracic tibiae of the locust in jumping and kicking have been investigated and a central excitatory connexion from the fast extensor to flexor motorneerones is confirmed.

The locust jump. I. The motor programme.

A motor programme for defensive kicking in the locust which is also probably the programme for jumping is described which causes relaxation of the flexor muscle and allows the tibia to extend.