# A novel free-living prochlorophyte abundant in the oceanic euphotic zone

@article{Chisholm1988ANF,
title={A novel free-living prochlorophyte abundant in the oceanic euphotic zone},
author={Sallie W. Chisholm and Robert J. Olson and Erik R. Zettler and Ralf Goericke and John B. Waterbury and Nicholas A. Welschmeyer},
journal={Nature},
year={1988},
volume={334},
pages={340-343}
}
The recent discovery of photosynthetic picoplankton has changed our understanding of marine food webs1. Both prokaryotic2,3 and eukaryotic4,5 species occur in most of the world's oceans and account for a significant proportion of global productivity6. Using shipboard flow cytometry, we have identified a new group of picoplankters which are extremely abundant, and barely visible using traditional microscopic techniques. These cells are smaller than the coccoid cyanobacteria and reach… Expand
1,071 Citations
The photosynthetic apparatus of Prochlorococcus: Insights through comparative genomics
Intriguing features found in both Prochlorococcus strains include a gene cluster for Rubisco and carboxysomal proteins that is likely of non-cyanobacterial origin and two genes for a putative $$\varepsilon$$ and β lycopene cyclase, respectively, explaining how Pro chlorococcus may synthesize the α branch of carotenoids that is common in green organisms but not in other cyanobacteria. Expand
Prochlorococcus, a Marine Photosynthetic Prokaryote of Global Significance
• Biology, Medicine
• Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews
• 1999
The present review critically assesses the basic knowledge acquired about Prochlorococcus both in the ocean and in the laboratory to determine its adaptation to nutrient-deprived environments. Expand
Prochlorococcus and Other Photosynthetic Picoplankton
The ability to measure genomic and metabolic properties in natural populations and isolates, and the ability to follow population dynamics, makes Prochlorococcus an excellent model system for studying microbial ecology on all scales. Expand
The Prochlorophytes - An Algal Enigma
The history of the discovery of Prochlorophytes is presented and the shift in focus that each new species has brought along is discussed, together with the contribution which each has made to widely different areas such as molecular phylogeny, photosynthesis and biological oceanography. Expand
Phylogenetic Analysis of Marine Phytoplankton
• Biology
• 1998
Among this smallest size fraction of the marine phytoplankton are the picoeukaryotes and Prochlorococcus/Synechococcus, whose importance in the open-ocean oligotrophic ecosystems has only been discovered within the last 20 years. Expand
The diversity of small eukaryotic phytoplankton (< or =3 microm) in marine ecosystems.
• Medicine, Biology
• FEMS microbiology reviews
• 2008
The range of methods that can be used to assess small phytoplankton diversity are discussed, the species described to date are presented, the existing molecular data obtained on field populations are reviewed, and the promises offered by genomics are looked at. Expand
The cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus has divergent light-harvesting antennae and may have evolved in a low-oxygen ocean
It is suggested that Prochlorococcus diverged from other cyanobacteria under low-oxygen conditions before transitioning from phycobilisomes to transmembrane chlorophyll complexes and may have contributed to the oxidation of the ancient ocean. Expand
psbA genes indicate common ancestry of prochlorophytes and chloroplasts
• Biology, Medicine
• Nature
• 1989
Overall pigment composition and thylakoid membrane structure of P. hollandica suggest it has intermediate characteristics between cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of higher plants, and this hypothesis is supported by phylogenetic analysis of derived Dl amino-acid sequences from psbA genes of thirteen taxa on the basis of parsimony. Expand
Phototrophic Microorganisms: The Basis of the Marine Food Web
• Biology
• 2016
The considerable amount of omics information recently becoming available on both isolates and natural populations of marine oxyphototrophs provide a solid basis for investigating their molecular ecology, their contribution to biogeochemical cycles, as well as their possible utilization in biotechnology, data mining, or biomimetics. Expand
Cyanobacterial photosynthesis in the oceans: the origins and significance of divergent light-harvesting strategies.
• Biology, Medicine
• Trends in microbiology
• 2002
Differences in the absorption properties and cellular costs between chlorophyll a(2)/b(2) and phycobilisome antennas in extant Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus appear to play a role in differentiating their ecological niches in the ocean environment. Expand

#### References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 22 REFERENCES
A new prokaryote containing chlorophylls a and b
• Biology
• Nature
• 1986
A second prochlorophyta is reported, one of the dominant species in the shallow eutrophic Loosdrecht lakes in The Netherlands, from which it was isolated in 1984 and which can easily be grown in a mineral medium. Expand
Chroococcoid cyanobacteria in the sea: A ubiquitous and diverse phototrophic biomass1
• Biology
• 1979
In the photic zone of the open sea, procaryotic cells with an ultrastructure typical of chroococcoid cyanobacteria and similar sized populations of autofluorescent bacteria (0.5–1.0 × 1.0 µm) wereExpand
Photosynthetic unit size, carotenoids, and chlorophyll-protein composition of Prochloron sp., a prokaryotic green alga.
• Biology, Medicine
• Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
• 1978
Six samples of the prokaryotic, unicellular algae Prochloron sp., which occur in association with didemnid ascidians, were collected from various localities in the tropical Pacific Ocean, and theirExpand
IN‐SITU MORPHOLOGY AND OCCURRENCE OF EUCARYOTIC PHOTOTROPHS OF BACTERIAL SIZE IN THE PICOPLANKTON OF ESTUARINE AND OCEANIC WATERS 1
• Biology
• 1982
Concentrates of the picoplankton from the euphotic zone of estuarine and oceanic waters were examined by transmission electron microscopy and the most ubiquitous microalga was a scaled, non‐flagellated prasinophyte that is probably the smallest known photo‐trophic eucaryote and has not heretofore been described. Expand
Photosynthesis of picoplankton in the oligotrophic ocean
• Environmental Science
• Nature
• 1983
Against a background of controversy concerning the absolute magnitude of biological productivity in the oligotrophic, tropical ocean1–4, evidence is accumulating for the existence there of aExpand
The distribution and abundance of phototrophic ultraplankton in the North Atlantic1,2
• Biology
• 1985
The numbers of the ultraplankton generally range one order of magnitude less than the cyanob bacteria, but they may equal or exceed cyanobacteria at depth and in northerly latitudes, and the eucaryotic assemblage is numerically dominated by the ultra plankton. Expand
Unknown chlorophyll a derivatives in the North Sea and the tropical Atlantic Ocean revealed by HPLC analysis1
• Biology
• 1983
In natural samples from the North Sea and the coastal zone of the central Atlantic Ocean several pigments with light-absorbance and fluorescence properties resembling Chl a, but chromatographically different, were responsible for overestimates of up to 40% with the conventional methods. Expand
Analysis of Synechococcus pigment types in the sea using single and dual beam flow cytometry
• Biology
• 1988
According to this survey, virtually all Synechococcus cells in the open ocean contain PUB and most of them have very high relative PUB contents, which gives them absorption properties not very different from those of the eukaryotic phytoplankton, and this could explain why photosynthetic action spectra have suggested that light absorption by phycoerythrobilin-rich phy coerythrin is relatively unimportant in theopen ocean. Expand
4‐Vinyl‐4‐desethyl chlorophyll a: a new naturally occurring chlorophyll
• Biology
• 1982
It is shown that this mutant of Zea mays (ON 8147) accumulates a new species of chl a in large amounts and may lack normal chlA altogether, and rule out the possibility of artifactual origin of the new chlorophyll. Expand
CHLOROPHYLL a:b RATIOS IN MARINE PLANKTONIC ALGAE 1
Chlorophyll a:b ratios for Chlorella capsulata Guillard, Bold & MacEntee, Chlorosarcinopsis halophila, Nannochloris atomus Butcher and Micromonas pusilla (Butcher) Manton & Parke support the hypothesis that marine algae have lower chlorophyll b containing plants. Expand