A novel combined adjuvant strongly enhances mucosal and systemic immunity to low pathogenic avian influenza after oral immunization in ducks.

Abstract

As natural reservoirs of avian influenza viruses, waterfowl play an important role in the generation, spread, and enzootic transmission of avian influenza. To prevent avian influenza in waterfowl through a simple, noninvasive, and needle-free route, ducks were immunized orally with an inactivated avian influenza virus (H9N2, IAIV) combined with CpG DNA and… (More)
DOI: 10.3382/ps.2012-03000

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Cite this paper

@article{Kang2013ANC, title={A novel combined adjuvant strongly enhances mucosal and systemic immunity to low pathogenic avian influenza after oral immunization in ducks.}, author={Haihong Kang and Hongli Wang and Qinghua Yu and Qian Yang}, journal={Poultry science}, year={2013}, volume={92 6}, pages={1543-51} }