A functional −77T>C polymorphism in XRCC1 is associated with risk of breast cancer
X-ray repair cross-complementing 1 (XRCC1) plays a key role in DNA base excision repair and cells lacking its activity are hypersensitive to DNA damage. Recently, we reported a SNP (rs3213245, -77T>C) in the XRCC1 gene 5' untranslated region (UTR) was significantly associated with the risk of developing esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma. Computer analysis predicted that this SNP was in the core of Sp1-binding motif, which suggested its functional significance. Gel shift and super shift assays confirmed that -77T>C polymorphic site in the XRCC1 promoter was within the Sp1-binding motif and the T>C substitution greatly enhanced the binding affinity of Sp1 to this region. Luciferase assays indicated that the Sp1-high-affinity C-allelic XRCC1 promoter was associated with a reduced transcriptional activity. The association between -77T>C and three other amino-acid substitution-causing polymorphisms in XRCC1 and risk of lung cancer was examined in 1024 patients and 1118 controls and the results showed that only the -77T>C polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing lung cancer. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that an increased risk of lung cancer was associated with the variant XRCC1 -77 genotypes (TC and CC) compared with the TT genotype (OR=1.46, 95% CI=1.18-1.82; P=0.001) and the increased risk was more pronounced in smokers (OR=1.63, 95% CI=1.20-2.21) than in non-smokers (OR=1.28, 95% CI=0.94-1.76). Taken together, these results showed that the functional SNP -77T>C in XRCC1 5'UTR was associated with cancer development owing to the decreased transcriptional activity of C-allele-containing promoter with higher affinity to Sp1 binding.