CNX-011-67, a novel GPR40 agonist, enhances glucose responsiveness, insulin secretion and islet insulin content in n-STZ rats and in islets from type 2 diabetic patients
Elevated glucose concentrations lead to increased insulin secretion and suppression of glucagon secretion. In fact, insulin is a physiological inhibitor of glucagon secretion. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients have defects in insulin secretion. In addition to this, lack of suppression of glucagon secretion under elevated glucose concentrations is also observed in T2DM patients. We have earlier shown that GPR40 activation by CNX-011-67 stimulates glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Here we extended our studies to examine the impact of GPR40 activation by CNX-011-67 on glucagon secretion from intact islets under both normal and glucolipotoxic conditions. Glucagon secretion from intact rat islets was suppressed under elevated glucose concentration. Activation of GPR40 by CNX-011-67 further suppressed glucagon secretion. Culturing islets under chronic glucolipotoxic (GL) conditions, we have observed increased high glucose mediated glucagon secretion and content which were reduced with GPR40 activation by CNX-011-67. Interestingly, expression of pre-proglucagon gene (GCG) remained unchanged under glucolipotoxicity in the presence or absence of GPR40 activation. Activation of GPR40 by CNX-011-67 can reduce glucagon secretion from pancreatic islets.