The TGF-β superfamily comprises pleiotropic cytokines that regulate SMAD and non-SMAD signaling. TGF-β-SMAD signal transduction is known to be involved in tissue fibrosis, including renal fibrosis. Here, we found that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-bound [1,25(OH)2D3-bound] vitamin D receptor (VDR) specifically inhibits TGF-β-SMAD signal transduction through… (More)
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