A non-invasive gating device for continuous drug delivery that allows control over the timing and duration of spontaneous opiate withdrawal

@article{Azar2004ANG,
  title={A non-invasive gating device for continuous drug delivery that allows control over the timing and duration of spontaneous opiate withdrawal},
  author={Marc R. Azar and S. H. Ahmed and R. G. Lintz and T V{\'a}zquez Guti{\'e}rrez and George F. Koob},
  journal={Journal of Neuroscience Methods},
  year={2004},
  volume={135},
  pages={129-135}
}
Opiate dependence in laboratory animals is commonly induced by two methods: (1) subcutaneous (s.c.) insertion of morphine pellets, and (2) daily injections of increasing doses of opiates. While both of these methods reliably induce opiate dependence, they do not allow one to discontinue, and subsequently reestablish steady state opiate plasma levels with minimal invasive procedures. We developed an "ON-OFF" gating device for repeatedly and non-invasively turning ON or OFF opiate delivery by… CONTINUE READING