A new view on Nematothallus: coralline red algae from the Silurian of Gotland

  title={A new view on Nematothallus: coralline red algae from the Silurian of Gotland},
  author={Martin R. Smith and Nicholas J. Butterfield},
Abstract: The thalloid carbonaceous fossil Nematothallus Lang, 1937, has been widely interpreted as an early Palaeozoic land‐plant, despite the absence of a convincing modern analogue. Exceptionally well‐preserved nematophyte cuticle from the Late Silurian Burgsvik Sandstone Formation, Gotland provides additional insight into the organism’s anatomy, phylogenetic affiliations and ecology. Because this material exhibits additional characters not present in the type material we assign it to… 

Contributions to the diversity in cryptogamic covers in the mid-Palaeozoic: 'Nematothallus' revisited

By their stratified organization the nematophytes differ from extant and extinct algae and bryophytes and the enigmatic Spongiophyton, and a complex anatomy and septate tubes suggest affinity with lichenized fungi.

Cord‐forming Palaeozoic fungi in terrestrial assemblages

The fossil record paints a thin picture of early terrestrial life; the presence of complex mycelial fossils in the earliest Silurian corroborates the likely contribution of fungi to the colonization of land and the establishment of modern sedimentological systems.

A possible erect coralline alga from the Ediacaran Dengying Formation in the Zhenba area of South China

Abstract. Studies of molecular biology suggest a deep origin of coralline red algae in the Neoproterozoic, but unequivocal representatives have not been found in Precambrian rocks. Such scarcity in


The Nematophyta is an enigmatic group of organisms, probably with a varied origin, that achieved world‐wide distribution during Ordovician–Devonian times and was an important component of environments before the colonization of land by higher plants.

Organically-preserved multicellular eukaryote from the early Ediacaran Nyborg Formation, Arctic Norway

Unexpected organically-preserved fossils from mudrocks are described, that provide support for the presence of organisms with differentiated cells (potentially an epithelial layer) in the late Neoproterozoic.

The early evolution of land plants, from fossils to genomics: a commentary on Lang (1937) ‘On the plant-remains from the Downtonian of England and Wales'

  • D. EdwardsP. Kenrick
  • Environmental Science
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2015
The developing knowledge of the composition of early land-based ecosystems and the interactions among their various components is contributing to the understanding of how life on land affects key Earth Systems (e.g. carbon cycle).

Substratum‐Associated Microbiota

A review of literature on substratrumassociated microbiotia from 2013 covers topics on benthic algae, bacteria and viruses from a range of aquatic environments, but focuses on freshwater ecosystems.



New species of Nematothallus from the Silurian Bloomsburg Formation of Pennsylvania

  • P. Strother
  • Environmental Science
    Journal of Paleontology
  • 1988
The early terrestrial fossil record contains numerous Siluro-Devonian problematic Thallophyta which have morphological and habitat characteristics intermediate between the algae and the embryophytic

Clarification of the genus Nematothallus Lang

  • P. Strother
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    Journal of Paleontology
  • 1993
Upper Silurian and lowermost Devonian fossil plant assemblages are often dominated by fragmentary remains of problematic land plants that are composed of a tubular anatomy that does not appear to be closely related to the Tracheidatae.

An enigmatic non-marine thalloid organism from the Triassic of East Antarctica

Evidence of non-vascular land plants from the early Silurian (Llandoverian) of Virginia, U.S.A.

Application of neontological taxonomic concepts to Late Eocene coralline algae (Rhodophyta) of the Austrian Molasse Zone

In the studied material of the Late Eocene Austrian Molasse Zone Lithoporella, Neogoniolithon, Spongites, Phymatolithon and Sporolithon are identified and described applying features of neontological taxonomic concepts.

Ordovician and Silurian coralline red algae

Solenopora gotlandica Rothpletz, hitherto placed in the Solenoporaceae Pia, is locally common in the mid-Silurian of Gotland and Wales. It possesses small cells, radial monomerous thallus

An account of the red algal genus Sporolithon (Sporolithaceae, Corallinales) in southern Australia

The species and the development of male and female-carposporangial conceptacles and tetrasporangIAL compartments and sori are described in detail for the first time and differences between the Sporolithaceae and the Corallinaceae are reconsidered in relation to new data on S. durum.

Silurian fungal remains: probable records of the Class Ascomycetes

It is suggested that these microfossils obtained from the late Silurian Burgsvik Sandstone represent the remains of the imperfect stages of terrestrial Ascomycetes, and provide evidence for an origin of this group at least contemporaneous with the earliest land plants.

Phosphatized multicellular algae in the Neoproterozoic Doushantuo Formation, China, and the early evolution of florideophyte red algae.

A phylogenetic interpretation implies that (1) the phylogenetic divergence between the Florideophyceae and its sister group, the Bangiales, must have taken place before Doushantuo time-an inference supported by the occurrence of bangialean fossils in Mesoproterozoic rocks.