A new view of pain as a homeostatic emotion

  title={A new view of pain as a homeostatic emotion},
  author={A. D. Craig},
  journal={Trends in Neurosciences},
  • A. Craig
  • Published 1 June 2003
  • Psychology, Biology
  • Trends in Neurosciences

Nociception and autonomic nervous system

The aim of this review is to focus on pain perception, mainly on pain matrix structures’ connections with the autonomic nervous system.

Nociception and autonomic nervous system

The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) defines pain as ''an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of

Psychophysics of CNS Pain-Related Activity: Binary and Analog Channels and Memory Encoding

It is shown that stimulation of an STT receiving zone in awake humans produces two different exteroceptive responses, the first a binary response signaling the presence of painful stimuli and the second an analog response in which nonpainful and painful sensations are graded with intensity of the stimulus.

A common neurobiology for pain and pleasure

Understanding the mutually inhibitory effects that pain and reward processing have on each other, and the neural mechanisms that underpin such modulation, is important for alleviating unnecessary suffering and improving well-being.

The Somatosensory System

Functional, anatomical and imaging data suggest that pain impulses are conveyed by specific ­sensory channels that ascend in a central homeostatic afferent pathway (Craig 2003a, b).

Pain-autonomic interactions

This review will focus on some central pain-autonomic interactions potentially relevant for the pathophysiology of primary headache.

Pain Perception Within Consciousness

The central pain control processes arising from interactions among the cognitive-evaluative, motivational-affective, and sensory-discriminative systems characterize the pain response, being also influenced by both noxious input and cognitive self-regulation.

The Human Pain System: Experimental and Clinical Perspectives

Functional implications of spinal and forebrain procedures for the treatment of chronic pain Index are summarized.

Behavioral therapy: emotion and pain, a common anatomical background

Nonpharmacological therapies, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, yoga, biofeedback, and meditation, that are often used for enhancing emotional regulation, are increasingly being turned to for augmenting management of migraine and pain.



Thermosensory activation of insular cortex

Using positron emission tomography, it is found contralateral activity correlated with graded cooling stimuli only in the dorsal margin of the middle/posterior insula in humans, which supports the proposal that central pain results from loss of the normal inhibition of pain by cold.

Pain mechanisms: labeled lines versus convergence in central processing.

  • A. Craig
  • Psychology, Biology
    Annual review of neuroscience
  • 2003
Functional and anatomical findings provide compelling support for a new perspective that views pain in humans as a homeostatic emotion that integrates both specific labeled lines and convergent somatic activity.

The affective component of pain in rodents: Direct evidence for a contribution of the anterior cingulate cortex

Evidence is provided indicating that neurons in the ACC are necessary for the “aversiveness” of nociceptor stimulation by measuring a learned behavior that directly reflects the affective component of pain in the rat.

Pain affect encoded in human anterior cingulate but not somatosensory cortex.

These findings provide direct experimental evidence in humans linking frontal-lobe limbic activity with pain affect, as originally suggested by early clinical lesion studies.

Functional imaging of an illusion of pain

TOUCHING warm and cool bars that are spatially interlaced produces a painful burning sensation resembling that caused by intense, noxious cold. We demonstrated previously that this thermal grill

A thalamic nucleus specific for pain and temperature sensation

It is concluded that there is a specific thalamic nucleus for pain and temperature sensation in both monkey and human that fit clinical descriptions of the pain-producing region in humans.

How do you feel? Interoception: the sense of the physiological condition of the body

  • A. Craig
  • Psychology
    Nature Reviews Neuroscience
  • 2002
Functional anatomical work has detailed an afferent neural system in primates and in humans that represents all aspects of the physiological condition of the physical body that might provide a foundation for subjective feelings, emotion and self-awareness.

Is neuropathic pain caused by the activation of nociceptive‐specific neurons due to anatomic sprouting in the dorsal horn?

Allodynia, or abnormal responsiveness to somatic sensory stimulation, is a characteristic of neuropathic pain and innocuous stimuli excite neurons in the superficial dorsal horn and the parabrachial nucleus that are normally activated by noxious nociceptive pain.

Pain mechanisms: a new theory.

A new theory of pain mechanisms is proposed, which holds that the nerve impulse pattern for pain is produced by intense stimulation of nonspecific receptors since "there are no specific fibers and no apecific endings".

Neuroanatomy of the pain system and of the pathways that modulate pain.

  • W. WillisK. Westlund
  • Biology, Psychology
    Journal of clinical neurophysiology : official publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
  • 1997
Structures involved in the descending analgesia systems, including the periaqueductal gray, locus ceruleus, and parabrachial area, nucleus raphe magnus, reticular formation, anterior pretectal nucleus, thalamus and cerebral cortex, and several components of the limbic system are described and the pathways and neurotransmitters utilized are mentioned.