Cytotoxic dimeric xanthanolides from fruits of Xanthium chinense.
Three new compounds (1-3), together with six known compounds (4-9), were isolated from the fruits of Xanthium sibiricum. The structures and the absolute configurations of sibiricumthionol (1), (+)-(5Z)-6-methyl-2-ethenyl-5-hepten-1,2,7-triol [(+)-2], ( - )-(5Z)-6-methyl-2-ethenyl-5-hepten-1,2,7-triol [( - )-2], (2E,4E,1'S, 2'R, 4'S, 6'R)-dihydrophaseic acid (3), (+)-xanthienopyran [(+)-4] and ( - )-xanthienopyran [( - )-4] were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses, X-ray crystallographic analysis, ECCD analysis and ECD calculations. Caffeic acid (7) and caffeic acid ethyl ester (8) weekly inhibited α-glucosidase enzymatic activity by 44.5% and 40.2%, respectively, at 40 μM. Protocatechuic acid (9) selectively exhibited cytotoxicity against HepG2 cell lines, with an IC50 value of 2.92 μM.