A new perspective on the social functions of emotions: Gratitude and the witnessing effect.

@article{Algoe2019ANP,
  title={A new perspective on the social functions of emotions: Gratitude and the witnessing effect.},
  author={Sara B. Algoe and Patrick C Dwyer and Ayana N. Younge and Christopher Oveis},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  year={2019}
}
We propose a novel theoretical and empirical approach to studying group-level social functions of emotions and use it to make new predictions about social consequences of gratitude. Here, we document the witnessing effect: In social groups, emotional expressions are often observed by third-party witnesses-family members, coworkers, friends, and neighbors. Emotional expressions coordinate group living by changing third-party witnesses' behavior toward first-party emotion expressers and toward… Expand
Moving the self and others to do good: The emotional underpinnings of prosocial behavior.
TLDR
Understanding the role of emotion in prosociality requires joint attention to intrapersonal and interpersonal effects, and discusses the emerging patterns from a social-functional perspective. Expand
Gratitude and Social Media: A Pilot Experiment on the Benefits of Exposure to Others’ Grateful Interactions on Facebook
TLDR
Preliminary findings suggest for the first time that social networking sites may actually amplify the spreading of gratitude and its benefits. Expand
ACTORS, TARGETS, AND WITNESSES 1 The Role of Actors, Targets, and Witnesses: Examining Gratitude Exchanges in a Social Context
Gratitude science often conflates the processes of recalling and sharing gratitude (by actors expressing gratitude), as well as neglecting to study targets (benefactors receiving gratitude) andExpand
Surprise me! On the impact of unexpected benefits on other-praising gratitude expressions
TLDR
Across experimental studies, unexpected benefits increased other-praising, albeit weakly so, but not self-benefiting, and the effect of unexpectedness on other- praising was significantly different from that on self-Benefiting. Expand
Evaluations of empathizers depend on the target of empathy.
  • Y Andre Wang, Andrew R Todd
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 2020
TLDR
Findings highlight the importance of considering the extradyadic impact of empathy and suggest that although people are often encouraged to empathize with disliked others, they are not always favored for doing so. Expand
The effects of gratitude and kindness on life satisfaction, positive emotions, negative emotions, and COVID-19 anxiety: An online pilot experimental study.
TLDR
The results showed that there were significant differences on positive emotions when controlling for the baseline well-being, gratitude, and kindness scores across all conditions, which point to the emotional benefits associated with promoting gratitude and kindness during the COVID-19 pandemic. Expand
Comment: Developing and Maintaining High-Quality Relationships via Emotion
This comment addresses opportunities for understanding the social functions of emotion by taking a developmental perspective. I agree that understanding emotions and their development willExpand
The psychological structure, social consequences, function, and expression of pride experiences
Pride is a positively valenced emotion that occurs in response to success and is comprised of two distinct facets: authentic pride, characterized by feelings of accomplishment and confidence; andExpand
Pursuing interpersonal value: An interdependence perspective.
TLDR
The findings suggest that pursuing interpersonal value usually promotes close relationships, but that some means to achieving interpersonal value, such as perfectionism and dominance, may often undermine relationship quality. Expand
The Development of Prosocial Emotions
Humans rely heavily on their prosocial relationships. We propose that the experience and display of prosocial emotions evolved to regulate such relationships through inhibiting individual selfishnessExpand
...
1
2
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 137 REFERENCES
The social functions of the emotion of gratitude via expression.
TLDR
A novel behavioral task in which members of romantic relationships expressed gratitude to one another in a laboratory paradigm predicted improvements in relationship quality over 6 months, suggesting the unique weight that gratitude carries in cultivating social bonds. Expand
A little thanks goes a long way: Explaining why gratitude expressions motivate prosocial behavior.
TLDR
The proposed gratitude expressions can enhance prosocial behavior through both agentic and communal mechanisms, such that when helpers are thanked for their efforts, they experience stronger feelings of self-efficacy and social worth, which motivate them to engage in prossocial behavior. Expand
Beyond reciprocity: gratitude and relationships in everyday life.
TLDR
The authors examined the role of naturally occurring gratitude in college sororities during a week of gift-giving from older members to new members, and found that gratitude during the week predicted future relationship outcomes. Expand
Warm thanks: gratitude expression facilitates social affiliation in new relationships via perceived warmth.
TLDR
This experiment provided evidence that perceptions of interpersonal warmth serve as the mechanism via which gratitude expressions facilitate affiliation: insofar as gratitude expressions signaled interpersonal warmth of the expresser, they prompted investment in the burgeoning social bond. Expand
Gratitude Facilitates Private Conformity: A Test of the Social Alignment Hypothesis
TLDR
Supporting the social alignment hypothesis, the results showed that induced gratitude increased private conformity, and participants induced to feel gratitude were more likely to conform to the purportedly popular choice, even if the option was factually incorrect. Expand
Find, Remind, and Bind: The Functions of Gratitude in Everyday Relationships
Though interest in the emotion of gratitude has historically focused on its role in social exchange, new evidence suggests a different and more important role for gratitude in social life. TheExpand
Putting the “You” in “Thank You”
TLDR
The spotlight is shone on what happens between a grateful person and the benefactor to illuminate what can build a bridge between them to clarify the specific behavioral and subjective psychological mechanisms through which expressed gratitude promotes relationships. Expand
Gratitude and Prosocial Behavior
TLDR
The ability of the emotion gratitude to shape costly prosocial behavior was examined in three studies employing interpersonal emotion inductions and requests for assistance and revealed that gratitude's ability to function as an incidental emotion dissipates if one is made aware of the true cause of the emotional state. Expand
The System‐Justifying Function of Gratitude Norms
We propose that gratitude norms function to motivate people to express system-justifying beliefs and attitudes. When people feel grateful for the benefits they receive from sociopoliticalExpand
Witnessing excellence in action: the ‘other-praising’ emotions of elevation, gratitude, and admiration
TLDR
The results of studies using recall, video induction, event-contingent diary, and letter-writing methods to induce other-praising emotions suggest that elevation motivates prosocial and affiliative behavior, gratitude motivates improved relationships with benefactors, and admiration motivates self-improvement. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...