A new paradigm for operant conditioning of Drosophila melanogaster

  title={A new paradigm for operant conditioning of Drosophila melanogaster},
  author={Gerhard Wustmann and Karlheinz Rein and Reinhard Wolf and Martin Heisenberg},
  journal={Journal of Comparative Physiology A},
A freely walking single fly (Drosophila melanogaster) can be conditioned to avoid one side of a small test chamber if the chamber is heated whenever the fly enters this side. In a subsequent memory test without heat it keeps avoiding the heat-associated side. The memory mutants dunce1 and rutabaga1 successfully avoid the heated side but show no avoidance in the memory test. Wildtype flies can be trained to successively avoid alternating sides in a reversal conditioning experiment. Every single… Expand
Memories in drosophila heat-box learning.
In a search for conditioning parameters leading to high retention scores, intermittent training is shown to give better results than those of continuous training, which helps to investigate memory retention after extended time periods. Expand
Avoidance of Heat and Attraction to Optogenetically Induced Sugar Sensation as Operant Behavior in Adult Drosophila
The authors are using a behavioral paradigm in which fruit flies attached to a manipulator can walk on a Styrofoam ball whose movements are recorded such that intended left or right turns of the flies can be registered and used to operantly control heat stimuli or optogenetic activation of distinct subsets of neurons. Expand
Searching for relief: Drosophila melanogaster navigation in a virtual bitter maze
This work shows how the optogenetically-induced activation of bitter-sensing neurons in Drosophila melanogaster elicits pain-like behavioural responses and stimulates the search for a place where this activation is relieved and proposes that spatially-specific reduction of locomotor velocity may provide immediate evidence of relief-based place learning and spatial memory. Expand
Rest Is Required to Learn an Appetitively-Reinforced Operant Task in Drosophila
This work presents the first sucrose-reinforced operant conditioning paradigm for flies and validated the sensitivity of this assay to detect the effect of genetic manipulations by testing the classic learning mutant dunce. Expand
Associative learning and memory in Drosophila: beyond olfactory conditioning
Three other behavioral learning paradigms in Drosophila serve as the main subject of this review, and the present evidence suggests that at least some of these modes of learning are independent of mushroom bodies. Expand
Use of Spatial Information and Search Strategies in a Water Maze Analog in Drosophila melanogaster
It is demonstrated that D. melanogaster flies are able to use either proximal or distal visual cues to increase their performance in navigating to a safe zone, andParameter-based classification of search strategies demonstrated the progressive use of spatially precise search strategies during learning. Expand
Operant conditioning in invertebrates
  • B. Brembs
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Current Opinion in Neurobiology
  • 2003
In conclusion, research on the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis elucidated the role of a behavior-initiating neuron in operant conditioning and demonstrated the usefulness of a variety of invertebrate model systems to complement and stimulate research in vertebrates. Expand
Brain organization and the roots of anticipation in Drosophila olfactory conditioning
The results of these experiments demonstrate a mechanism for flies to display anticipation of their environment after olfactory conditioning has occurred, but these results fail to provide evidence for reinforcement, a consequence of action, as part of this mechanism. Expand
Reinforcement pre-exposure enhances spatial memory formation in Drosophila
It is found that pre-exposing flies to a high temperature negative reinforcer in the heat-box place-learning paradigm enhanced later associative conditioning that uses mild increases in temperature, suggesting the conservation of this component of learning. Expand
Short-term memories in Drosophila are governed by general and specific genetic systems.
  • T. Zars
  • Computer Science, Medicine
  • Learning & memory
  • 2010
The distributed basis of learning in Drosophila implies that some biochemical/cellular mechanisms are common between learning situations, indicating that flies do not have a dedicated system for each learning context. Expand


Classical conditioning and retention in normal and mutantDrosophila melanogaster
By changing the conditioned discrimination paradigm of Quinn et al. (1974) from an instrumental procedure to a classical (Pavlovian) one, strong learning in type flies is demonstrated and conditioned avoidance still was measurable at least three hours after training. Expand
Conditioned behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.
  • W. Quinn, W. Harris, S. Benzer
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1974
Populations of Drosophila were trained by alternately exposing them to two odorants, one coupled with electric shock. On testing, the flies avoided the shock-associated odor. Pseudoconditioning,Expand
Conditioning Mutations in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER Affect an Experience-Dependent Behavioral Modification in Courting Males.
Results indicate that males of the conditioning-defective strains are able to elicit necessary cues from fertilized females, yet do not then modify their courtship with virgin females, suggesting that experience-dependent modification of courtship and the previously reported associative olfactory conditioning with electric shock share common elements of processing. Expand
Genetic dissection of consolidated memory in Drosophila
It is shown that consolidated memory of conditioned (learned) odor avoidance 1 day after extended training consisted of two genetically distinct, functionally independent memory components: anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) and long-term memory (LTM). Expand
Basic organization of operant behavior as revealed in Drosophila flight orientation
A conceptual framework of operant behavior is proposed that requires a goal of which the actual state deviates and consistent control of a sensory stimulus by a behavior may lead to a more permanent behavioral change. Expand
Drosophila mushroom body mutants are deficient in olfactory learning.
Two Drosophila mutants are described in which the connections between the input to and the output from the mushroom bodies is largely interrupted, and the defect seems not to impair learning of color discrimination tasks or operant learning involving visual cues. Expand
Dissection of memory formation: from behavioral pharmacology to molecular genetics
These studies support the application of reverse-genetic strategies, including the use of temporally specific agonists and antagonists, to advance the functional dissection of memory formation. Expand
Neuropeptides, adenylyl cyclase, and memory storage.
The cloning of the Drosophila memory gene amnesiac reveals that it encodes a novel neuropeptide homologous to mammalian pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating peptide (PACAP), which is likely to play a specific role in memory storage. Expand
dunce, a mutant of Drosophila deficient in learning.
An X-linked mutant, dunce, has been isolated that fails to display this learning in spite of being able to sense the odorant and electric shock and showing essentially normal behavior in other respects. Expand
Mushroom bodies and drosophila learning