The portal venous (p.v.) administration of foreign cells induces donor-specific tolerance. Recently, we have demonstrated that the p.v. administration of donor cells elicits donor-specific tolerance across major histocompatibility complex barriers. In the present study, utilizing the intrahepatic tolerance-inducing system, we have established a new method for organ transplantation using both busulfan ([Bu] to provide a sufficient "space" for the donor hematopoietic cells to expand in the recipient) and neuraminidase ([Neu] to enhance the trapping of i.v.-injected cells in the liver). Radiolabeled bone marrow cells (BMCs) were found to exclusively accumulate in the livers of the recipients as a result of the Neu treatment. Furthermore, hematopoietic progenitors (forming hematopoietic foci) in the accumulated BMCs were retained in the recipient livers for at least 18 days. C57BL/6 (B6) mice that had been transplanted with skins of BALB/c mice immediately after the injection of BALB/c BMCs showed a 90% skin graft survival rate over 400 days as a result of using the combination of injecting 50 mg/kg Bu into the B6 mice and treatment of the BALB/c BMCs with 0.25 U/ml Neu (50 Bu + 0.25 Neu). However, the survival rate significantly decreased when either the Bu or Neu treatment was omitted. In tolerant recipients, microchimerism was observed in the various hematolymphoid organs. T cells collected from the tolerant recipients suppressed proliferative responses to the donor-alloantigens but enhanced the production of Th2 and Th3 cytokines. These findings suggest that the enhanced retention of donor BMCs in the recipient livers as a result of the Bu and Neu treatments efficiently induces tolerance induction. Therefore, this "single-day protocol" would be of great advantage for human organ transplantation.