A new galesaurid (Therapsida: Cynodontia) from the Lower Triassic of South Africa

  title={A new galesaurid (Therapsida: Cynodontia) from the Lower Triassic of South Africa},
  author={Christian A. Sidor and Roger M. H. Smith},
A new galesaurid cynodont, Progalesaurus lootsbergensis gen. et sp. nov., is described on the basis of a well‐preserved skull, lower jaw, right scapula and left atlantal neural arch. Autapomorphies of Progalesaurus include postcanine teeth bearing numerous mesial and distal accessory cusps that flank a recurved main cusp, a post‐temporal fenestra bordered by the squamosal ventrally and a large external naris. Progalesaurus is similar to Galesaurus in possessing a poorly defined masseteric fossa… 
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A Basal Nonmammaliaform Cynodont from the Permian of Zambia and the Origins of Mammalian Endocranial and Postcranial Anatomy
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A new record of Procynosuchus delaharpeae (Therapsida: Cynodontia) from the Upper Permian Usili Formation, Tanzania
Procynosuchus, the best-known Permian cynodont, has a remarkably broad geographic range, with records stretching from southern Africa to Europe. Fossils of Procynosuchus are most common in the Upper
A New Specimen of Promoschorhynchus (Therapsida: Therocephalia: Akidnognathidae) from the Lower Triassic of South Africa and its Implications for Theriodont Survivorship Across the Permo-Triassic Boundary
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A new cynodont record from the Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone of the Beaufort Group: implications for the early evolution of cynodonts in South Africa
A new specimen of cynodont has been recovered from the lower Upper Permian levels of the Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone of the South African Karoo Basin. A series of characters, including the presence
The oldest cynodont: new clues on the origin and early diversification of the Cynodontia
One most parsimonious tree, from an analysis using implied weights, positions Charassognathus as the most basal cynodont, which implies that the Cynodontia initially diversified in Permian Gondwana, in what is now southern Africa.
A new trirachodontid cynodont from the lower levels of the Burgersdorp Formation (Lower Triassic) of the Beaufort Group, South Africa and the cladistic relationships of Gondwanan gomphodonts
A new trirachodontid cynodont is described from the base of the Burgersdorp Formation (Subzone A fauna of the Cynognathus Assemblage Zone), of the South African Karoo Basin and is characterized by circular to ovoid in outline upper postcanines and the absence of a maxillary platform lateral to the postcanine series.
A new large cynodont from the Late Permian (Lopingian) of the South African Karoo Basin and its phylogenetic significance
A phylogenetic analysis suggests that V. elikhulu is the sister taxon of Eucynodontia and thus the most derived of the Lopingian to Induan cynodonts yet discovered.
The cranial anatomy of Kombuisia frerensis Hotton (Synapsida, Dicynodontia) and a new phylogeny of anomodont therapsids
The general topology of this phylogeny supports the main aspects of recent hypotheses of anomodont relationships, and not only resolves critical nodes at the base of the Dicynodontia that were previously obscured by polytomies, but also introduces new hypotheses of relationships.
Craniofacial Morphology of Vintana Sertichi (Mammalia, Gondwanatheria) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar
ABSTRACT The Gondwanatheria are an enigmatic clade of Cretaceous and Paleogene mammals known from South America, Africa, Madagascar, India, and the Antarctic Peninsula. The eight valid species—each


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The morphological peculiarities of this Northern Dvina cynodont justify its being set apart in a separate family Dviniidae related to the Procynosuchidae — the extremely primitive Cynodonts of South Africa.
Owenetta kitchingorum, sp. nov., a small parareptile (Procolophonia: Owenettidae) from the Lower Triassic of South Africa
The anatomy of a new species of Owenetta, O. kitchingorum, from the Early Triassic is described here on the basis of three nearly complete skeletons, and controversies surrounding parareptilian phylogeny are discussed as they relate to Owenetta.
On two new specimens of Lystrosaurus-zone cynodonts
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Whaitsiid Therocephalia and the origin of cynodonts
It is argued that the organization of the cynodont skull can be seen as a logical functional development from the more primitive condition, and in particular, the streptostylic nature of the jaw articulation, the enlargement of the dentary and reduction of the postdentary bones, may all be correlated with the development of a masseter muscle.
Synapsid Evolution and the Radiation of Non-Eutherian Mammals
Of all the great transitions between major structural grades within vertebrates, the transition from basal amniotes to basal mammals is represented by the most complete and continuous fossil record, extending from the Middle Pennsylvanian to the Late Triassic and spanning some 75 to 100 million years.
Homologies of the Prootic Canal in Mammals and Non-mammalian Cynodonts
The term prootic canal is proposed to be restricted to the canal enclosing the prootic sinus (middle cerebral vein) of extinct “non-tribosphenic” mammals.
The septomaxilla of fossil and recent synapsids and the problem of the septomaxilla of monotremes and armadillos
A review of neontological and palaeontological evidence regarding this element in mammals supports the following conclusions: monotremes have a true septomaxilla resembling that known for non-mammalian therapsids and some Mesozoic mammals.
Reconstruction of the cranial vessels in the Early Cretaceous mammal Vincelestes neuquenianus: implications for the evolution of the mammalian cranial vascular system
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Catalogue of the Fossil Reptilia and Amphibia in the British Museum (Natural History)
The present work indicates an enormous amount of careful and accurate work, which, however, is of such a special kind that it cannot easily be summarized in a short review.
On the Tooth-Replacement in Theriodont Reptiles
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