Translational research (TR) plays an important role for the clinical application of novel therapeutic strategies developed through experiments in basic sciences. TR allows being at the forefront of a real and relevant improvement in the management of some diseases. Surgical innovations or new operative techniques must be investigated and elaborated at the TR center, which has the potential for medical training and research development by young investigators involved in cutting edge, relevant science. A new concept of TR on surgery includes various fields of technique and science. Practical researches based on high level surgical technique, physiology, immunology, pharmacology, molecular biology, tissue engineering and ethics, are required and must be applied to improve continuously treatments for patients suffering from severe illnesses.