A new Late Cambrian pentastomid and a review of the relationships of this parasitic group

  title={A new Late Cambrian pentastomid and a review of the relationships of this parasitic group},
  author={Dieter Waloszek and John E. Repetski and Andreas Maas},
  journal={Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences},
  pages={163 - 176}
ABSTRACT Pentastomida, tongue worms, are a taxon of about 130 species of parasites, living exclusively in the respiratory tracts of vertebrates. Three-dimensionally preserved Upper Cambrian larvae already demonstrate a high degree of adaptation to parasitism, striking morphological conservatism, and a high diversification by the Late Cambrian, thereby suggesting a likewise diversified host group. Not least due to their highly modified morphology, the systematic affinities of pentastomids remain… 

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Fossil Constraints on the Timescale of Parasitic Helminth Evolution

This compilation shows that the fossil record of soft-bodied helminths is patchy, but more diverse than commonly assumed, and cautions against models of pure co-divergence where use of host calibrations to constrain divergence time estimates may be considered.

Morphological support for the phylogenetic positioning of Pentastomida and related fossils

The results indicate that Pentastomida is a transitional group between the Arthropoda and some of the Nemathelminth groups such as Nematoda and Nematomorpha.

Gill structure and relationships of the Triassic cycloid crustaceans

  • J. Dzik
  • Biology
    Journal of morphology
  • 2008
It is proposed that the cycloid gills originated, in connection with the body size increase and adaptation to fresh‐water environment, as radially arranged infoldings of the respiratory areas cuticle, with strongly calcified rigid dorsal parts suspended from the carapace.



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A three-dimensionally and completely preserved phosphatized microfossil has been found in Cambrian–Ordovician boundary bed limestones of the Green Point Formation at Green Point, western

Pentastomid parasites from the Lower Palaeozoic of Sweden

The fossils clearly document the marine origin of the Pentastomida, and that their specific morphology and parasitic life style were already established in the late Cambrian at a high degree of diversification, long before the terrestrialisation of their present final hosts, the tetrapods.

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‘Orsten’-type preservation is the phosphatisation of cuticular surfaces without any further deformation and has yielded completely three-dimensional fossils, mainly arthropods at scale of 100 μm—2 mm, implying that the ancestry of Arthropoda lies even further back well in the Pre-Cambrian.

Some observations on the taxonomy and systematics of the pentastomid genus Armillifer (Sambon, 1922) in south east Asian and Australian snakes

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