A neural basis for visual search in inferior temporal cortex

@article{Chelazzi1993ANB,
  title={A neural basis for visual search in inferior temporal cortex},
  author={Leonardo Chelazzi and Earl K. Miller and John Duncan and Robert Desimone},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1993},
  volume={363},
  pages={345-347}
}
WE often search for a face in a crowd or for a particular object in a cluttered environment. In this type of visual search, memory interacts with attention: the mediating neural mechanisms should include a stored representation of the object and a means for selecting that object from among others in the scene1–4. Here we test whether neurons in inferior temporal cortex, an area known to be important for high-level visual processing, might provide these components. Monkeys were presented with a… 
Responses of neurons in inferior temporal cortex during memory-guided visual search.
TLDR
The results support a "biased competition" model of attention, according to which objects in the visual field compete for representation in the cortex, and this competition is biased in favor of the behaviorally relevant object by virtue of "top-down" feedback from structures involved in working memory.
Responses of neurons in macaque area V4 during memory-guided visual search.
TLDR
The results support a 'biased competition' model of attention, according to which objects in the visual field compete for representation in the cortex, and this competition is biased in favor of the behaviorally relevant object.
Modeling the Temporal Dynamics of IT Neurons in Visual Search: A Mechanism for Top-Down Selective Attention
TLDR
A neural model for object-oriented attention in which various visual stimuli are represented by competing, mutually inhibitory, cell assemblies is proposed, which suggests that such a process may be used by the visual system for selecting an expected target (appearing at an uncertain location) among distractors.
Varieties of Attention: A Model of Visual Search
TLDR
A system-level model of visual processing incorporating several attentional mechanisms known to function in mammalian visual systems was developed and a reinforcement learning (temporal difference) algorithm was employed to replicate the learning process in monkeys.
Activity of Inferior Temporal Cortical Neurons Predicts Recognition Choice Behavior and Recognition Time during Visual Search
TLDR
The results provide additional support for the role of inferior temporal cortex in object recognition during natural behavior and the monkeys' response time was predicted by the magnitude of the presaccadic firing rate on nonswap trials.
Visual feature selectivity in frontal eye fields induced by experience in mature macaques
TLDR
It is proposed that this selective response occurs so soon after presentation of the stimulus array, and is independent of location within the visual field, reflects a form of experience-dependent plasticity that mediates the learning of arbitrary stimulus–response associations.
NEURAL MECHANISMS UNDERLYING OBJECT SELECTIVITY IN MACAQUE INFEROTEMPORAL CORTEX
The inferotemporal cortex of the macaque monkey mediates the recognition of objects in the visual world. The purpose of the research presented in this dissertation was to investigate the neural
Learning increases stimulus salience in anterior inferior temporal cortex of the macaque.
TLDR
It is found that increasing the behavioral significance of a stimulus through training alters the neural representation of that stimulus in anterior inferior temporal (aIT) cortex, and neurons responding to features of the relevant stimulus may suppress neurons respondingto features of irrelevant stimuli.
Modulation of neuronal responses during covert search for visual feature conjunctions
TLDR
Recordings from directionally selective cells in visual area MT of monkeys trained to covertly search for targets defined by a unique conjunction of color and motion features and to signal target detection with an eye movement to the putative target suggested that this modulation is not a mere presaccadic enhancement.
The integration of visual and target signals in V4 and IT during visual object search
TLDR
This study is the first to systematically compare the responses of V4 and IT during an object search task in which objects can appear in different real-world configurations, and it provides important constraints on the neural computations responsible for finding visual targets.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 13 REFERENCES
Activity of neurons in anterior inferior temporal cortex during a short- term memory task
  • E. Miller, L. Li, R. Desimone
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • 1993
TLDR
Inferior temporal (IT) cortex of primates is recorded from IT neurons while monkeys performed a delayed matching-to-sample task, with multiple intervening items between the sample and matching test stimulus, and an active reset mechanism appears to restrict the memory comparison to just the stimuli presented within a trial.
Neuronal correlate of pictorial short-term memory in the primate temporal cortexYasushi Miyashita
TLDR
A group of shape-selective neurons in an anterior ventral part of the temporal cortex of monkeys that exhibited sustained activity during the delay period of a visual short-term memory task are reported.
Effects of attention and stimulus interaction on visual responses of inferior temporal neurons in macaque.
  • T. Sato
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of neurophysiology
  • 1988
TLDR
The magnitude of suppression by the attended pattern on the visual response during the pattern discrimination task correlated with the suppression noted in the presence of a fixation spot during the fixation tasks, while the animals did not fixate on the attending pattern.
Temporal encoding of two-dimensional patterns by single units in primate inferior temporal cortex. I. Response characteristics.
TLDR
The responses of IT neurons in alert behaving monkeys to a large set of two-dimensional black and white patterns showed temporal modulation of the spike train that could not be represented by a change in the spike count alone.
Selective attention gates visual processing in the extrastriate cortex.
TLDR
The filtering of irrelevant information from the receptive fields of extrastriate neurons may underlie the ability to identify and remember the properties of a particular object out of the many that may be represented on the retina.
Movement selection in advance of action in the superior colliculus
TLDR
The results suggest that the superior colliculus participates in the process of saccade selection, and shows that prelude activity occurs shortly after information is available for correct saccades selection and, more importantly, the activity is predictive of sAccade choice.
Inferotemporal neurons distinguish and retain behaviorally relevant features of visual stimuli.
TLDR
Single-cell activity was recorded in the inferotemporal cortex of monkeys performing a task that requires perception and temporary retention of colored stimuli and showed color-dependent differences in frequency of discharge during the retention periods of the task.
A theory of visual attention.
  • C. Bundesen
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Psychological review
  • 1990
TLDR
A unified theory of visual recognition and attentional selection is developed by integrating the biased-choice model for single-stimulus recognition with a choice model for selection from multielement displays in a race model framework.
Visual search and stimulus similarity.
TLDR
A new theory of search and visual attention is presented, which accounts for harmful effects of nontargets resembling any possible target, the importance of local nontarget grouping, and many other findings.
Discharge characteristics of single units in superior colliculus of the alert rhesus monkey.
TLDR
The aim of the present study was to investigate the discharge characteristics of single units in the superior colliculus of the alert, unanesthe tized monkey and to assess both the visual receptivefield characteristics of units and the possible relation of unit discharges to eye movement.
...
1
2
...