A neural basis for gyroscopic force measurement in the halteres of Holorusia

  title={A neural basis for gyroscopic force measurement in the halteres of Holorusia},
  author={Jessica L. Fox and Thomas L. Daniel},
  journal={Journal of Comparative Physiology A},
Dipteran flight requires rapid acquisition of mechanosensory information provided by modified hindwings known as halteres. Halteres experience torques resulting from Coriolis forces that arise during body rotations. Although biomechanical and behavioral data indicate that halteres detect Coriolis forces, there are scant data regarding neural encoding of these or any other forces. Coriolis forces arise on the haltere as it oscillates in one plane while rotating in another, and occur at… 

Encoding properties of haltere neurons enable motion feature detection in a biological gyroscope

It is shown that the primary afferent neurons of the haltere’s mechanoreceptors respond selectively with high temporal precision to multiple stimulus features, which allows the haltedere to transmit information at a high rate about numerous inertial forces, including Coriolis forces.

Modelling of soldier fly halteres for gyroscopic oscillations

The natural frequency along both actuation and sensing directions is estimated, a finite element model of the haltere's joint mechanism is proposed, and the significance of the haltedere's asymmetric cross-section is discussed.

Representation of Haltere Oscillations and Integration with Visual Inputs in the Fly Central Complex

In cells in the central brain, the timing and rates of neural spiking can be modulated by sensory input from experimental haltere movements, finding haltere sensory information in a brain region known to be involved in slower, higher-order behaviors, such as navigation.

Significance of the Asymmetry of the Haltere: A Microscale Vibratory Gyroscope

This study brings out one specific feature—the asymmetric geometry of the haltere structure—that is not found in current vibratory gyroscope designs that will inspire new designs of MEMS gyroscopes that have elegance and simplicity of the haltedere along with the desired performance.

Coriolis and centrifugal forces drive haltere deformations and influence spike timing

Since local strains at the base of the haltere drive deformations of mechanosensory neurons, measured neural encoding mechanisms with structural analyses are combined to predict the spatial and temporal patterns of neural activity and show the viability for timing-based encoding of fly body rotations by halteres.

A Neural Circuit for Angular Velocity Computation

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Haltere removal alters responses to gravity in standing flies

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Control of moth flight posture is mediated by wing mechanosensory feedback

The results indicate that, in addition to their role as actuators during locomotion, insect wings serve as sensors that initiate reflexes that control body dynamics, suggesting that the wings can encode information about flight dynamics.

Dipteran Halteres: Perspectives on Function and Integration for a Unique Sensory Organ.

The halteres of dipteran insects (true flies) are essential mechanosensory organs for flight, and current understanding of how they move, encode forces, and transmit information about these forces to the nervous system to guide behavior is examined.

Haltere mechanosensory influence on tethered flight behavior in Drosophila

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Haltere Afferents Provide Direct, Electrotonic Input to a Steering Motor Neuron in the Blowfly, Calliphora

Using intracellular recording and mechanical stimulation, one identified haltere campaniform field (dF2) is found that provides strong synaptic input to the mnb1 that may be responsible in part for the phase-locked firing of b1 during flight.

Convergent mechanosensory input structures the firing phase of a steering motor neuron in the blowfly, Calliphora.

The results indicate that both wing and haltere afferents make strong monosynaptic connections with MNB1, consisting of fast electrical and slow Ca(2+)-sensitive components, and that the wing pathway is stronger, judged by its ability to entrain MNB 1 within a background of haltere stimulation.

Linear and Nonlinear Encoding Properties of an Identified Mechanoreceptor on the Fly wing Measured with Mechanical Noise Stimuli

A method of analysis based upon mechanical noise stimuli which is used to quantify the encoding properties of one of these sensilla (the d-HCV cell) on the wing of the blowfly Calliphora vomitoria, and is successful in predicting the response of campaniform neurones to arbitrary stimuli.

The halteres of the blowfly Calliphora

  • G. Nalbach
  • Physics, Education
    Journal of Comparative Physiology A
  • 2004
From these considerations it is concluded that Coriolis forces play the major role in detecting body rotations.

The halteres of the blowfly Calliphora

Compensatory head reactions of flies to imposed body rotations in yaw, pitch and roll are quantitatively analysed and the haltere is characterized as a sense organ for maintaining equilibrium as well as a method to mimick rotational stimuli by subjecting the body of a flying fly to vibrations.

The gyroscopic mechanism of the halteres of Diptera

  • J. Pringle
  • Engineering
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
  • 1948
The paper gives a detailed anatomical, dynamical and physiological analysis of the gyroscopic mechanism of the halteres of the higher Diptera. (1) A re-examination has been made of the structure of

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The control of wing kinematics by two steering muscles of the blowfly (Calliphora vicina)

Sustained activation of the b1 at rates near wing beat frequency appears necessary for the tonic maintenance of stroke amplitude, and similar kinematic alterations were correlated with b2 spikes, and consequently, both muscles may function in the control of turns toward the contralateral side.

Head Movements in Flies ( Calliphora ) Produced by Deflexion of the Halteres

Behavioural observations of walking flies show that the presence or absence of halteres has a small but nevertheless significant effect on the animals9 ability to detect angular accelerations during walking or to orient with respect to gravity.

Mechanosensory control of compensatory head roll during flight in the blowflyCalliphora erythrocephala Meig.

In the blowflyCalliphora flying stationarily in a wind tunnel, compensatory head movements were elicited by rolling the fly about its longitudinal axis, and the role of resilience of the neck skeleton, and that of different neck sense organs are discussed.