The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of opiate maintenance pharmacotherapy (OMP) on the biopsychosocial status of opiate-addicted patients in a cultural environment (France) that is not favorable to OMP and where methadone is not available. Buprenorphine and laudanum (opium tincture), which, to our knowledge, has not been reported previously in the scientific literature for OMP, were used in this study of a group of 18 opioid-dependent subjects. At time of initiation of OMP, mean age was 33 years, sex ratio male: female was 14:4, average duration of drug use was 11.2 years. Six patients received laudanum p.o., 15 g daily; 12 patients received buprenorphine sublingual 2 to 4 mg daily. This group of patients was selected because of persistent relapse and impairment after an average of 5.7 drug-free-oriented treatments over a period of 6.8 years. Initial evaluation and follow-up were made by way of a 150-min semi-structured interview using the Lifetime Retrospective Evaluation Score Table (LREST) and the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). Results showed that body weight and scores for physical and psychological health, socioprofessional status, and family relationships improved significantly after 14 months of OMP. These results show that highly impaired opiate-addicted patients doing poorly in drug-free treatment can respond to OMP even though methadone is not available and the idea of OMP is not favored.