A mutant RNA pseudoknot that promotes ribosomal frameshifting in mouse mammary tumor virus.

@article{Kang1997AMR,
  title={A mutant RNA pseudoknot that promotes ribosomal frameshifting in mouse mammary tumor virus.},
  author={H M Kang and Ignacio Tinoco},
  journal={Nucleic acids research},
  year={1997},
  volume={25 10},
  pages={
          1943-9
        }
}
A single A-->G mutation that changes a potential A.U base pair to a G.U pair at the junction of the stems and loops of a non-frameshifting pseudoknot dramatically increases its frameshifting efficiency in mouse mammary tumor virus. The structure of the non-frameshifting pseudoknot APK has been found to be very different from that of pseudoknots that cause efficient frameshifting [Kang,H., Hines,J.V. and Tinoco,I. (1995) J. Mol. Biol. , 259, 135-147]. The 3-dimensional structure of the mutant… 
Mutational analysis of the RNA pseudoknot involved in efficient ribosomal frameshifting in simian retrovirus-1.
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The sequence manipulations that are necessary to bypass the requirement for an 11 bp stem 1 and to convert a short non-functional IBV-derived pseudoknot into a highly efficient, kinked frameshifter pseudok not are described.
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TLDR
The thermodynamic basis with which to further refine the relationship between efficient ribosomal frameshifting and pseudoknot structure and stability is provided, with evidence of a detectable global destabilization of the molecule.
Contribution of the intercalated adenosine at the helical junction to the stability of the gag-pro frameshifting pseudoknot from mouse mammary tumor virus.
TLDR
Group 1A monovalent ions, NH4+, Mg2+, and Co(NH3)6(3+) ions stabilize the A14 and deltaA14 pseudoknots to largely identical extents, revealing that the observed differences in stability in these molecules do not derive from a differential or specific accumulation of ions.
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TLDR
Overall, however, the structure probing data indicate that the pseudoknot interaction is weak and may form transiently, in comparison to other characterised RNA structures present at viral frameshift signals, the RSV stimulator falls into a novel group.
Specific mutations in a viral RNA pseudoknot drastically change ribosomal frameshifting efficiency.
TLDR
It is found that specific nucleotide tertiary interactions at the junction between the two stems of the pseudoknot are crucial and can allow viruses to adjust frameshifting efficiencies and thereby regulate protein synthesis in response to environmental change.
Structural studies of the RNA pseudoknot required for readthrough of the gag-termination codon of murine leukemia virus.
TLDR
Evidence is provided that loop I of the pseudoknot is one nucleotide, stem II has seven base-pairs, and the nucleotides 3' of stem II are important for function, which indicates that stem II is more resistant to single-strand-specific probes than stem I.
Mutational study reveals that tertiary interactions are conserved in ribosomal frameshifting pseudoknots of two luteoviruses.
TLDR
Comparison of the results with analogous mutants in the frameshifting region of the evolutionarily related beet western yellow virus, for which a crystal structure is available, unequivocally argues for the pseudoknot to be the structural motif necessary for theframeshifting function in PLRV transcripts.
The role of RNA pseudoknot stem 1 length in the promotion of efficient −1 ribosomal frameshifting 1
TLDR
Stem 1 length is a major factor in determining the functionality of this class of pseudoknot and this has implications for models of the frameshift process.
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