Strict actions of the human wrist flexors: A study with an electrical neuromuscular stimulation method.
A multichannel functional electrical stimulation (FES) system for the restoration of quadriplegic upper extremity function is described. The system is composed of a personal computer NEC PC-8801mkII, peripheral electronic circuits, CRT display and respiratory sensors for volitional control by the patient, and percutaneous electrodes. A C4 quadriplegic patient could drink canned tea by herself by using this FES system. Distinct features of the system are as follows: 1) Versatile volitional control was realized by controlling the memory allocation of the stored stimulation data by voluntary respiratory signals. 2) Sophisticated fine control of the fingers, wrists, and elbow was realized by creating the multichannel stimulation data from recorded myoelectric activities of normal subjects during movements of the upper limb.