Factors predicting prognosis and recurrence in patients with esophago-gastric adenocarcinoma and histopathological response with less than 10 % residual tumor
OBJECTIVE To evaluate 5-year survival of patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer (LAEC) who have undergone multimodality treatment with complete histopathologic response. BACKGROUND Patients with LAEC may obtain excellent local-regional response to multimodality therapy. The overall benefit of a complete histopathologic response, when no viable tumor is present in the surgical specimen, is incompletely understood and existing data are limited to single-center studies with relatively few patients. The aim of this multicenter study was to define the outcome of patients with complete histopathologic response after multimodality therapy for LAEC. METHODS The study population included 299 patients (229 male, 70 female; median age: 60 years) with LAEC (cT2N1M0, T3-4N0-1M0; 181 adenocarcinomas, 118 squamous carcinomas) who underwent either neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (n = 284) or chemotherapy (n = 15) followed by esophagectomy at 6 specialized centers: Europe (3) and United States (3). All patients in the study had stage ypT0N0M0R0 after resection. RESULTS Esophagectomy with thoracotomy (n = 255) was more frequent than with a transhiatal approach (n = 44). The median number of analyzed lymph nodes in the surgical specimens was 20 (minimum-maximum: 1-77). Thirty-day mortality rate was 2.4% and 90-day mortality rate was 5.7%. Overall 5-year survival rate was 55%. The disease-specific 5-year survival rate was 68%, with a recurrence rate of 23.4% (n = 70; local vs distant recurrence: 3.3% vs 20.1%). Cox regression analysis identified age as the only independent predictor of survival, whereas gender, histology, type of esophagectomy, type of neoadjuvant therapy, and the number of resected lymph nodes had no prognostic impact. CONCLUSION Patients with histopathologic complete response at the time of resection of LAEC achieve excellent survival.