A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of tolvaptan monotherapy compared to furosemide and the combination of tolvaptan and furosemide in patients with heart failure and systolic dysfunction.

@article{Udelson2011AMR,
  title={A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of tolvaptan monotherapy compared to furosemide and the combination of tolvaptan and furosemide in patients with heart failure and systolic dysfunction.},
  author={James E. Udelson and Martin S. Bilsker and Paul J. Hauptman and Rafael Sequeira and Ignatius Thomas and Terrence O'Brien and Christopher Zimmer and Cesare Orlandi and Marvin A. Konstam},
  journal={Journal of cardiac failure},
  year={2011},
  volume={17 12},
  pages={973-81}
}
BACKGROUND Increased vasopressin levels may be present in patient with chronic heart failure (HF) and contribute to pathophysiology through effects on the vasopressin V2 receptor. The presence of background diuretic therapy may confound evaluations of vasopressin receptor antagonists (VRA). METHODS AND RESULTS Eligible patients had HF (New York Heart Association Class II-III), systolic dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤0.40) and signs of congestion (eg, edema, rales). At… CONTINUE READING

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