A molecular analysis of ground sloth diet through the last glaciation

  title={A molecular analysis of ground sloth diet through the last glaciation},
  author={Michael Hofreiter and H. N. Poinar and W. Geoffrey Spaulding and Kurt Bauer and P. S. Martin and G{\"o}ran Possnert and Svante P{\"a}{\"a}bo},
  journal={Molecular Ecology},
DNA was extracted from five coprolites, excavated in Gypsum Cave, Nevada and radiocarbon dated to approximately 11 000, 20 000 and 28 500 years bp. All coprolites contained mitochondrial DNA sequences identical to a DNA sequence determined from a bone of the extinct ground sloth Nothrotheriops shastensis. A 157‐bp fragment of the chloroplast gene for the large subunit of the ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL) was amplified from the boluses and several hundred clones were sequenced. In… Expand
Phylogeny, diet, and habitat of an extinct ground sloth from Cuchillo Curá, Neuquén Province, southwest Argentina
A day when molecular analyses are used routinely to supplement morphological identifications and possibly to provide a time-lapse view of molecular diversification is envisioned. Expand
Molecular analysis of a 11 700‐year‐old rodent midden from the Atacama Desert, Chile
The more extensive sampling of modern Phyllotis reinforces the suggestion that P. limatus is recently derived from a peripheral isolate, and suggests a much more diverse and humid climate 11 700 years ago. Expand
Mycological evidence of coprophagy from the feces of an Alaskan Late Glacial mammoth
This is the second time that evidence for coprophagy of mammoths has been derived from the presence of fruit bodies of coprophilous fungi in frozen dung, and it is strongly recommend that particular attention should be given to fungal remains in future fossil dung studies. Expand
The Ecological implications of a Yakutian mammoth's last meal
Part of a large male woolly mammoth was preserved in permafrost in northern Yakutia and dung from the lower intestine was subjected to a multiproxy array of microscopic, chemical, and molecular techniques to reconstruct the diet, the season of death, and the paleoenvironment. Expand
Collagen Sequence Analysis of the Extinct Giant Ground Sloths Lestodon and Megatherium
Examination of phylogenetic potential of proteomics-based sequencing through the analysis of collagen extracted from two extinct giant ground sloths, Lestodon and Megatherium highlights that proteomics methods could yield plausible phylogenies that share similarities with other methods, but have the potential to be more useful in fossils beyond the limits of ancient DNA survival. Expand
Integrative analysis of DNA, macroscopic remains and stable isotopes of dog coprolites to reconstruct community diet
An integrative analysis of dog coprolites is presented, combining macroscopic analyses, stable isotope measurements, and DNA shotgun sequencing to examine diet and health status, finding that the Late Woodland dogs consumed a variety of fish as well as bird and plant taxa, possibly including maize, and also harbored intestinal parasites and pathogenic bacteria. Expand
Diet analysis of Leopoldamys neilli, a cave-dwelling rodent in Southeast Asia, using Next-Generation Sequencing from feces
Examining the plant composition of the diet of L. neilli at the level of order and family using DNA for molecular identification and to compare it with two other forest-dwelling Leopoldamys species, L. herberti and L. sabanus, identified seventeen orders and twenty-one plant families corresponding to thirty-three putative species. Expand
Multiproxy diet analysis of the last meal of an early Holocene Yakutian bison
Pollen, botanical macrofossils, chemical components and ancient DNA were studied in samples from the rumen of a frozen Yakutian bison (Bison priscus) that lived ca. 10,500 cal a BP. The dialkylExpand
A molecular analysis of dietary diversity for three archaic Native Americans
  • H. Poinar, M. Kuch, +7 authors S. Pääbo
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2001
Human paleofecal remains represent a source of ancient DNA that significantly complements and may in some cases be superior to that from skeletal tissue. Expand
Plant DNA sequences from feces: potential means for assessing diets of wild primates
With further optimization, this method could provide a basic evaluation of minimum primate dietary diversity even when knowledge of local flora is limited and may find application in studies characterizing the diets of poorly‐known, unhabituated primate species or assaying consumer–resource relationships in an ecosystem. Expand


Molecular coproscopy: dung and diet of the extinct ground sloth Nothrotheriops shastensis.
DNA from excrements can be amplified by means of the polymerase chain reaction. However, this has not been possible with ancient feces. Cross-links between reducing sugars and amino groups were shownExpand
Molecular phylogeny of the extinct ground sloth Mylodon darwinii.
Phylogenetic analyses using homologous sequences from all extant edentate groups suggest that Mylodon darwinii was more closely related to the two- toed than the three-toed sloths and, thus, that an arboreal life-style has evolved at least twice among sloths. Expand
Shasta ground sloth food habits rampart cave arizona
There was no unusual change in the sloth diet immediately prior to the time of their extinction and the ecological role of Nothrotheriops shastense is less dramatically different from that of extant desert herbivores than was previously believed. Expand
DNA extraction from Pleistocene bones by a silica-based purification method.
The following method, which is a modification of a protocol published by Boom et a/. Expand
Shasta ground sloth ( Nothrotheriops shastense hoffstetter) at Shelter Cave, New Mexico: Environment, diet, and extinction
Abstract Seven coprolites of the extinct Shasta ground sloth (Nothrotheriops shastense) were recently discovered in the Los Angeles County Museum collection from Shelter Cave, New Mexico. Three dungExpand
Development of Vegetation and Climate in the Southwestern United States
Plant macrofossils in ancient packrat middens document the presence of woodland communities in most of the present Chihuahuan, Sonoran, and Mohave deserts in the southwestern United States during theExpand
The retrieval of ancient human DNA sequences.
These results show that more experimental work than is often applied is necessary to ensure that DNA sequences amplified from ancient human remains are authentic and quantitation of the numbers of amplifiable molecules is a useful tool to determine the role of contaminating contemporary molecules and PCR errors in amplifications from ancient DNA. Expand
DNA damage and DNA sequence retrieval from ancient tissues.
Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to determine the amounts of eight oxidative base modifications in DNA extracted from 11 specimens of bones and soft tissues, ranging in age fromExpand
Late Holocene Vegetation Changes in Greenwater Valley, Mojave Desert, California
Abstract Small-scale late Holocene vegetation changes were determined from a series of 13 modern and fossil packrat middens collected from a site in the Greenwater Valley, northern Mojave Desert,Expand
The last pluvial climatic episodes in the deserts of southwestern North America
Long-term variations in the effective moisture of deserts are linked both to glacial–interglacial climatic cycles and, through the Milankovitch theory, to orbitally induced changes in solar radiationExpand