A modular solar engine with solar cell, heat pipe, and heat sink in an integrated package for high concentrating photovoltaic

This paper presents design, development and testing of a modular solar engine for CPV. Solar cell, heat pipe, package substrate, heat sink, secondary optics rod and wirings are integrated in a self-contained, plug-and-play module. The integrated solar engine can generate 30W per 1 cm2 solar cell area with natural (passive) cooling.