Mitogenomic analysis of Chinese snub-nosed monkeys: Evidence of positive selection in NADH dehydrogenase genes in high-altitude adaptation.
SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements) are a class of non-autonomous mobile elements that are <500 bp in length and have no open reading frames. Individual SINE elements are essentially homoplasy free with known ancestral states, making them useful genetic systems for phylogenetic studies. Alu elements are the most successful SINE in primate genomes and have been utilized for resolving primate phylogenetic relationships and human population genetics. However, no Alu based phylogenetic analysis has yet been performed to resolve relationships among Old World monkeys. Using both a computational approach and polymerase chain reaction display methodology, we identified 285 new Alu insertions from sixteen Old World monkey taxa that were informative at various levels of catarrhine phylogeny. We have utilized these elements along with 12 previously reported loci to construct a phylogenetic tree of the selected taxa. Relationships among all major clades are in general agreement with other molecular and morphological data sets but have stronger statistical support.