Exocrine pancreatic function was evaluated in 13 dogs, using the chymotrypsin-labile peptide N-benzoyl-L-tyrosyl-p-aminobenzoic acid (BT-PABA). This peptide releases p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) in the presence of pancreatic chymotrypsin. The amount of PABA in blood or urine after BT-PABA administration then served as an index of pancreatic function. Similarly, a xylose absorption test has been described in the literature to evaluate absorptive function of the small intestine. Here, the pentose sugar d(+)xylose was given orally, and blood xylose concentrations were then measured at intervals. Since both tests were performed in nearly the same way, they were combined into a single test. A solution containing BT-PABA (30 mg/ml) and xylose (100 mg/ml) was administered perorally to dogs with and without pancreatic duct ligation. In the unoperated (control) dogs, peak blood concentrations for PABA occurred between 60 and 120 minutes and xylose concentrations were maximal between 30 and 90 minutes. Pancreatic duct ligation reduced PABA concentrations at 90 minutes to one-sixth of the values in control dogs. Xylose absorption, however, was not altered by pancreatic duct ligation. In this way, digestive and absorptive functions were both evaluated, using a single 90-minute test.