A metabolomic approach to study the rhizodeposition in the tritrophic interaction: tomato, Pochonia chlamydosporia and Meloidogyne javanica

Abstract

A combined chemometrics-metabolomics approach [excitation–emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS)] was used to analyse the rhizodeposition of the tritrophic system: tomato, the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne javanica and the nematode-egg parasitic fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia. Exudates from M. javanica roots were sampled at root penetration (early) and gall development (late). EMM indicated that late root exudates from M. javanica treatments contained more aromatic amino acid compounds than the rest (control, P. chlamydosporia or P. chlamydosporia and M. javanica). 1H NMR showed that organic acids (acetate, lactate, malate, succinate and formic acid) and one unassigned aromatic compound (peak no. 22) were the most relevant metabolites in root exudates. Robust principal component analysis (PCA) grouped early exudates for nematode (PC1) or fungus presence (PC3). PCA found (PC1, 73.31 %) increased acetate and reduced lactate and an unassigned peak no. 22 characteristic of M. javanica root exudates resulting from nematode invasion and feeding. An increase of peak no. 22 (PC3, 4.82 %) characteristic of P. chlamydosporia exudates could be a plant “primer” defence. In late ones in PC3 (8.73 %) the presence of the nematode grouped the samples. HPLC–MS determined rhizosphere fingerprints of 16 (early) and 25 (late exudates) m/z signals, respectively. Late signals were exclusive from M. javanica exudates confirming EEM and 1H NMR results. A 235 m/z signal reduced in M. javanica root exudates (early and late) could be a repressed plant defense. This metabolomic approach and other rhizosphere -omics studies could help to improve plant growth and reduce nematode damage sustainably.

DOI: 10.1007/s11306-014-0632-3

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@article{Escudero2014AMA, title={A metabolomic approach to study the rhizodeposition in the tritrophic interaction: tomato, Pochonia chlamydosporia and Meloidogyne javanica}, author={Nuria Pazos Escudero and Frutos Carlos Marhuenda-Egea and Ricardo Ibanco-Ca{\~n}ete and Ernesto A. Zavala-Gonzalez and Luis Vicente L{\'o}pez-Llorca}, journal={Metabolomics}, year={2014}, volume={10}, pages={788-804} }