A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation.

@article{Deci1999AMR,
  title={A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation.},
  author={Edward L. Deci and Richard Koestner and Richard M. Ryan},
  journal={Psychological bulletin},
  year={1999},
  volume={125 6},
  pages={
          627-68; discussion 692-700
        }
}
A meta-analysis of 128 studies examined the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. As predicted, engagement-contingent, completion-contingent, and performance-contingent rewards significantly undermined free-choice intrinsic motivation (d = -0.40, -0.36, and -0.28, respectively), as did all rewards, all tangible rewards, and all expected rewards. Engagement-contingent and completion-contingent rewards also significantly undermined self-reported interest (d = -0.15, and -0.17), as… 

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