A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation.

  title={A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation.},
  author={Edward L. Deci and Richard Koestner and Richard M. Ryan},
  journal={Psychological bulletin},
  volume={125 6},
          627-68; discussion 692-700
A meta-analysis of 128 studies examined the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. As predicted, engagement-contingent, completion-contingent, and performance-contingent rewards significantly undermined free-choice intrinsic motivation (d = -0.40, -0.36, and -0.28, respectively), as did all rewards, all tangible rewards, and all expected rewards. Engagement-contingent and completion-contingent rewards also significantly undermined self-reported interest (d = -0.15, and -0.17), as… 

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The Differential Effects of Tangible Rewards and Praise on Intrinsic Motivation: A Comparison of Cognitive Evaluation Theory and Operant Theory

  • J. Carton
  • Psychology, Biology
    The Behavior analyst
  • 1996
Three potential confounding effects are revealed that provide explanations for the effects of tangible rewards and praise on intrinsic motivation that are consistent with principles of operant psychology.

Reward, distraction, and the overjustification effect

A number of experiments have recently demonstrated that extrinsic constraints and rewards can produce lower levels of intrinsic interest in subsequent freechoice situations. This effect has been

The Empirical Exploration of Intrinsic Motivational Processes1

Effects of Externally Mediated Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation.

Two laboratory experiments and one field experiment were conducted to investigate the effects of external rewards on intrinsic motivation to perform an activity. In each experiment, subjects were

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