A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation.

  title={A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation.},
  author={E. Deci and R. Koestner and R. Ryan},
  journal={Psychological bulletin},
  volume={125 6},
          627-68; discussion 692-700
  • E. Deci, R. Koestner, R. Ryan
  • Published 1999
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Psychological bulletin
  • A meta-analysis of 128 studies examined the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. As predicted, engagement-contingent, completion-contingent, and performance-contingent rewards significantly undermined free-choice intrinsic motivation (d = -0.40, -0.36, and -0.28, respectively), as did all rewards, all tangible rewards, and all expected rewards. Engagement-contingent and completion-contingent rewards also significantly undermined self-reported interest (d = -0.15, and -0.17), as… CONTINUE READING
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