A meta-analysis of worldwide studies demonstrates an association between schizophrenia and tobacco smoking behaviors

  title={A meta-analysis of worldwide studies demonstrates an association between schizophrenia and tobacco smoking behaviors},
  author={Jos{\'e} De Leon and Francisco J. Diaz},
  journal={Schizophrenia Research},
Epidemiology of Comorbid Tobacco Use and Schizophrenia: Thinking About Risks and Protective Factors
A meta-analytic review demonstrated that schizophrenia is consistently and strongly associated with current tobacco smoking with a world average odds ratio of 5.3 (95% confidence interval, CI 4.9–5.7).
Smoking in male patients with schizophrenia in China: A meta-analysis.
Secondhand smoke exposure and mental health in adults: a meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies
  • Y. Zeng, Ya-Min Li
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
  • 2015
Exposure to SHS among non-smoker is associated with depressive symptoms and psychological distress, emphasizing the significance of reducing SHS exposure at a population level.
Associations of cigarette smoking with psychiatric disorders: evidence from a two-sample Mendelian randomization study
It is found that cigarette smoking was causally associated with increased risks of a number of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, bipolar disorder, insomnia, major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, suicide attempts, and schizophrenia.
Smoking and schizophrenia in population cohorts of Swedish women and men: a prospective co-relative control study.
This association does not arise from smoking onset during a schizophrenic prodrome and demonstrates a clear dose-response relationship, and smoking prospectively predicts risk for schizophrenia.
Smoking rates among schizophrenia patients in Japan
Genetics of schizophrenia and smoking: an approach to studying their comorbidity based on epidemiological findings
The approach, which examines the results of epidemiological studies on comorbidities and then looks for genes that simultaneously satisfy epidemiologically suggested sets of hypotheses, may also apply to the study of other major illnesses.
Incidence of cancer in patients with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives: a population-based study in Sweden.
The significantly decreased incidences of cancers in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and their unaffected relatives suggest that familiar/genetic factors contributing to schizophrenia may protect against the development of cancer, especially for those cancer sites observed in both settings.


Investigating the association between cigarette smoking and schizophrenia in a cohort study.
Cigarette smoking may be an independent protective factor for developing schizophrenia, consistent with animal models showing both neuroprotective effects of nicotine and differential release of prefrontal dopamine in response to nicotine.
Smoking and major depression. A causal analysis.
The results suggest that the association between smoking andMD in women is not a causal one but arises largely from familial factors, which are probably genetic, that predispose to both smoking and MD.
Tobacco smoking and bipolar disorder.
It is suggested that smoking may be more prevalent in bipolar patients than in the normal population and vulnerability to bipolar illness may make subjects vulnerable to become tobacco smokers.
Factors affecting smoking in schizophrenia.
It appears that smoking in schizophrenia is influenced by gender and subtype, and the nature of this association remains uncertain because in the vast majority of the patients smoking initiation occurs earlier than the disease onset.
Higher Rates of Cigarette Smoking in Male Adolescents Before the Onset of Schizophrenia: A Historical-Prospective Cohort Study
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of cigarette smoking among schizophrenia patients is significantly higher than in the general population; this may reflect self-medication of symptoms and/or adverse effects
The association between high nicotine dependence and severe mental illness may be consistent across countries.
New studies, specially designed to test for transcultural differences in nicotine dependence, are needed to verify that nicotine dependence in severely mentally ill patients is consistently high and similar in different countries.
Cigarette smoking in schizophrenia: relationship to psychopathology and medication side effects.
Overall multiple ANCOVA demonstrated a significant main effect for smoking status but not gender or the interaction between gender and smoking status, and Smoking status is a significant factor that should be considered in assessment of neuroleptic dose requirements and Neuroleptic side effects.
Smoking and substance abuse in outpatients with schizophrenia: a 2-year follow-up study in Turkey.