A meta-analysis of worldwide studies demonstrates an association between schizophrenia and tobacco smoking behaviors

@article{Leon2005AMO,
  title={A meta-analysis of worldwide studies demonstrates an association between schizophrenia and tobacco smoking behaviors},
  author={Jos{\'e} De Leon and Francisco J. Diaz},
  journal={Schizophrenia Research},
  year={2005},
  volume={76},
  pages={135-157}
}
Epidemiology of Comorbid Tobacco Use and Schizophrenia: Thinking About Risks and Protective Factors
TLDR
A meta-analytic review demonstrated that schizophrenia is consistently and strongly associated with current tobacco smoking with a world average odds ratio of 5.3 (95% confidence interval, CI 4.9–5.7).
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  • 2015
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Exposure to SHS among non-smoker is associated with depressive symptoms and psychological distress, emphasizing the significance of reducing SHS exposure at a population level.
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It is found that cigarette smoking was causally associated with increased risks of a number of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, bipolar disorder, insomnia, major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, suicide attempts, and schizophrenia.
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This association does not arise from smoking onset during a schizophrenic prodrome and demonstrates a clear dose-response relationship, and smoking prospectively predicts risk for schizophrenia.
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TLDR
The approach, which examines the results of epidemiological studies on comorbidities and then looks for genes that simultaneously satisfy epidemiologically suggested sets of hypotheses, may also apply to the study of other major illnesses.
Incidence of cancer in patients with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives: a population-based study in Sweden.
TLDR
The significantly decreased incidences of cancers in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and their unaffected relatives suggest that familiar/genetic factors contributing to schizophrenia may protect against the development of cancer, especially for those cancer sites observed in both settings.
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