Consensus paper of the WFSBP Task Force on Biological Markers: Criteria for biomarkers and endophenotypes of schizophrenia part I: Neurophysiology.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measures of inhibition and excitation in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia (SCZ). METHODS Paradigms included: short-interval cortical inhibition (SICI), cortical silent period (CSP), resting motor threshold, intracortical facilitation, and motor evoked potential amplitude. A literature search was performed using PubMed, Ovid Medline, Embase Psychiatry and PsycINFO 1990 through April 2012. RESULTS A significant Hedge's g was found for decreased SICI (g=0.572, 95% confidence interval [0.179, 0.966], p=0.004), enhanced intracortical facilitation (g=0.446, 95% confidence interval [0.042, 0.849], p=0.030) and decreased CSP (g=-0.466, 95% confidence interval [-0.881, -0.052], p=0.027) within the OCD population. For MDD, significant effect sizes were demonstrated for decreased SICI (g=0.641, 95% confidence interval [0.384, 0.898], p=0.000) and shortened CSP (g=-1.232, 95% confidence interval [-1.530, -0.933], p=0.000). In SCZ, a significant Hedge's g was shown for decreased SICI (g=0.476, 95% confidence interval [0.331, 0.620], p=0.000). CONCLUSION Inhibitory deficits are a ubiquitous finding across OCD, MDD, SCZ and enhancement of intracortical facilitation is specific to OCD. SIGNIFICANCE Provides a clear platform from which diagnostic procedures can be developed.