A mathematical theory of strong emergence using multiscale variety

@article{BarYam2004AMT,
  title={A mathematical theory of strong emergence using multiscale variety},
  author={Yaneer Bar-Yam},
  journal={Complexity},
  year={2004},
  volume={9},
  pages={15-24}
}
We argue conceptually and then demonstrate mathematically that it is possible to define a scientifically meaningful notion of strong emergence. A strong emergent property is a property of the system that cannot be found in the properties of the system’s parts or in the interactions between the parts. The possibility of strong emergence follows from an ensemble perspective, which states that physical systems are only meaningful as ensembles rather than individual states. Emergent properties… CONTINUE READING
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