A major metabolite of Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinol reduces its cataleptic effect in mice

  title={A major metabolite of $\Delta$1-tetrahydrocannabinol reduces its cataleptic effect in mice},
  author={Sumner H Burstein and Sheila A. Hunter and V Latham and L A Renzulli},
The results described here demonstrate that THC-induced catalepsy in mice can be substantially inhibited by the prior administration of Δ1-THC-7-oic acid, the major metabolite of THC in most species including humans. This raises the possibility that the intensity and duration of action of THC may depend to a large degree on the levels of this metabolite at the sites of action. 

11-Nor-9-carboxy-∆ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol - a ubiquitous yet underresearched cannabinoid. A re- view of the literature

A literature review on the reported pharmacological effects of THC-COOH is provided and further studies are advocated to reveal any potential involvement of this abundant metabolite in the complex pharmacology and in the proven therapeutic effects of cannabis extracts.

The cannabinoid acids, analogs and endogenous counterparts.

  • S. Burstein
  • Chemistry, Biology
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry
  • 2014

Ajulemic Acid, a Synthetic Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid Acid, Bound to the Ligand Binding Domain of the Human Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ*

The crystal structure of the ligand binding domain of the γ isotype of human PPAR in complex with ajulemic acid shows a binding mode that is compatible with other known partial agonists of PPAR, explaining their moderate activation of the receptor, and provides clues to the understanding of partial agonism itself.

Clinical Pharmacodynamics of Cannabinoids

The knowledge of the pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids has considerably increased within the past decade due to the detection of an endogenous cannabinoid system with specific receptors and their endogenous ligands, including THC, which is an agonist to both the CB1 and the CB2 subtype of these receptors.

Ajulemic acid (IP-751): Synthesis, proof of principle, toxicity studies, and clinical trials

A phase-2 human trial with chronic, neuropathic pain patients suggested that AJA could become a useful drug for treating this condition and its low toxicity suggests that it will have a highly favorable therapeutic index and may replace some of the current anti-inflammatory/analgesic medications.

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Cannabinoids

Properties of cannabis that might be of therapeutic use include analgesia, muscle relaxation, immunosuppression, sedation, improvement of mood, stimulation of appetite, antiemesis, lowering of intraocular pressure, bronchodilation, neuroprotection and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells.

Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Cannabinoids

ABSTRACT Absorption and metabolism of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) vary as a function of route of administration. Pulmonary assimilation of inhaled THC causes a maximum plasma concentration within mi...

Cannabinoid tetrad effects of oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) in male and female rats: sex, dose-effects and time course evaluations

CBD modestly increased mechanical pain sensitivity and produced sex-dependent effects on body temperature and locomotor activity as well as producing long lasting effects that differed in magnitude and time course when compared with other routes of administration.

Cannabinoids for therapeutic use

Water-soluble agonists to the cannabinoid receptor that allow intravenous administration have been developed and Dexanabinol, a non-psychotropic neuroprotective cannabinoid derivative, was given intravenously in clinical studies to decrease the consequences of severe closed head injuries.




Tetrahydrocannabinol is more active orally in mice than previously thought, as cataleptic responses occur at doses from 0.06mg/kg upwards, with peak activity at 2 to 4 h after dosing, which correspond well with the effects in man.

Prostaglandins and cannabis XIV. Tolerance to the stimulatory actions of cannabinoids on arachidonate metabolism.

Tolerance to cannabinoid action has been reported for a variety of in vivo parameters; thus, this in vitro system exhibits similar behavior and may be a good model for studies on the molecular mechanisms involved in tetrahydrocannabinol action.

Anti-edema and analgesic properties of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

Tetrahydrocannabinol is an effective inhibitor of developing adjuvant-induced arthritis and suppresses further development of time established disease, and has no antipyretic activity at a dose producing profound anti-edema effects.

Plasma and brain levels of delta 6-THC and seven monooxygenated metabolites correlated to the cataleptic effect in the mouse.

It was concluded that structural rather than pharmacokinetic features are most important in determining the psychoactivity of the various cannabinoid metabolites of THC.

The ring test: a quantitative method for assessing the ‘cataleptic’ effect of cannabis in mice

  • R. Pertwee
  • Biology, Medicine
    British journal of pharmacology
  • 1972
It is concluded that Δ1‐tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ1‐THC) is largely responsible for the effect of cannabis extract on mobility; the potency ratio of Δ1-THC to cannabis extract is between 10 and 20.

Do Plasma Concentrations of Δ9‐Tetrahydrocannabinol Reflect the Degree of Intoxication?

Plasma concentrations of THC were measured by gas‐liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry following three routes of administration and correlated with clinical effects and it is unlikely that a range of plasma concentrations can be reliably equated with impaired performance.

Marihuana: Biological Effects

  • 1979