A lymphocyte-specific cellular enhancer is located downstream of the joining region in immunoglobulin heavy chain genes

@article{Banerji1983ALC,
  title={A lymphocyte-specific cellular enhancer is located downstream of the joining region in immunoglobulin heavy chain genes},
  author={Julian Banerji and L Olson and Walter Schaffner},
  journal={Cell},
  year={1983},
  volume={33},
  pages={729-740}
}
Transcriptional enhancers, originally discovered in viral genomes, are short, cis-acting, regulatory sequences that strongly stimulate transcription from promoters of nearby genes. We demonstrate the existence of an enhancer within a mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain gene. A DNA fragment located between the joining region and the switch recombination region in the intron upstream of the immunoglobulin mu constant region has been linked, in both orientations, to genes coding for rabbit beta… 
A lymphocyte-specific enhancer in the mouse immunoglobulin κ gene
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A fraction containing partially purified octamer motif binding factor has a stimulatory effect on transcription in an in vitro system and the corresponding DNA-binding factor appears to be the same in the three cases.
A second B cell-specific enhancer 3' of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus
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It is shown that a strong B-cell-specific enhancer is indeed located at the 3'-end of the rat IgH locus, 25 kilobases downstream of Cα, and could play a part in the activation of the translocated c-myc genes in rat immuno-cytomas, mouse plasmacytomas and Burkitt lymphomas.
A factor known to bind to endogenous Ig heavy chain enhancer only in lymphocytes is a ubiquitously active transcription factor.
TLDR
It is found that there are at least three categories of factors which mediate cell-type-specific transcription in B lymphocytes: cell-specific factors such as Oct-2A andOct-2B that are not expressed in most other cell types: (b) ubiquitous factors that are constitutively active in B cells but are sequestered in an inactive form in other cells; (c) ubiquitously active factors, exemplified by the one binding to the E3 sequence motif.
An immunoglobulin promoter displays cell-type specificity independently of the enhancer
TLDR
It is shown that the promoter for an immunoglobulin κ light-chain gene also is strongly specific for lymphoid cells, re-emphasizing the importance of promoters relative to enhancers in determining which cells express which genes.
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