A low-noise single-photon detector implemented in a 130 nm CMOS imaging process

  title={A low-noise single-photon detector implemented in a 130 nm CMOS imaging process},
  author={Marek Gersbach and Justin A. Richardson and Eric Mazaleyrat and Stephane Hardillier and Cristiano Niclass and Robert K. Henderson and Lindsay Grant and Edoardo Charbon},
  journal={Solid-state Electronics},
We report on a new single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS imaging process. A novel circular structure combining shallow trench isolation (STI) and a passivation implant creates an effective guard ring against premature edge breakdown. Thanks to this guard ring, unprecedented levels of miniaturization may be achieved at no cost of added noise, decreased sensitivity, or timing resolution. The detector, integrated along with quenching and readout electronics, was fully… Expand
A low-noise time-gated single-photon detector in a HV-CMOS technology for triggered imaging
Abstract An optical imager for triggered applications is presented. The detector consists of a 10 × 43 array of single-photon avalanche pixels and exhibits an unusual fill-factor of 67%. It has beenExpand
A new single-photon avalanche diode in 90nm standard CMOS technology.
We report on the first implementation of a single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) in 90nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The detector features an octagonal multiplicationExpand
An Infra-Red Sensitive, Low Noise, Single-Photon Avalanche Diode in 90nm CMOS
A Single-Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) is reported in 90nm CMOS imaging technology with a pea k photon detection efficiency (PDE) of ≈44% at 690nm and better than ≈20% at 850nm. This represents anExpand
Scaleable Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Structures in Nanometer CMOS Technology
Single-photon avalanche photodiodes (SPADs) operating in Geiger mode offer exceptional time resolution and optical sensitivity. Implementation in modern nanometer-scale complementaryExpand
A scalable single-photon avalanche diode with improved photon detection efficiency and dark count noise
Abstract An improved scalable single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) structure with a virtual epitaxial guard ring is presented based on a Bipolar-CMOS-DMOS (BCD) technology. A deep junction betweenExpand
A new single-photon avalanche diode in 90nm standard CMOS technology
A single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) fabricated in a 90nm standard CMOS process is reported. The detector comprises an octagonal multiplication region and a guard ring to prevent premature edgeExpand
Design and characterisation of SPAD based CMOS analog pixels for photon-counting applications
Recent advancements in biomedical research and imaging applications have ignited an intense interest in single-photon detection. Along with single-photon resolution, nanosecond or sub-nanosecondExpand
Monolithic Perimeter Gated Single Photon Avalanche Diode Based Optical Detector in Standard CMOS
Since the 1930’s photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) have been used in single photon detection. Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) are p-n junctions operated in the Geiger mode. Unlike PMTs, CMOS basedExpand
A Time-Resolved, Low-Noise Single-Photon Image Sensor Fabricated in Deep-Submicron CMOS Technology
The target application for this sensor is time-resolved imaging, in particular fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and 3D imaging, and the characterization shows the suitability of the proposed sensor technology for these applications. Expand
Readout schemes for low noise single-photon avalanche diodes fabricated in conventional HV-CMOS technologies
Experimental results demonstrate that the three pixels present a similar behavior, and the pixels get rid of afterpulses and present a reduced dark count probability by applying the gated operation. Expand


A Single Photon Avalanche Diode Implemented in 130-nm CMOS Technology
We report on the first implementation of a single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) in 130 nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The SPAD is fabricated as p+/n-well junction withExpand
STI-Bounded Single-Photon Avalanche Diode in a Deep-Submicrometer CMOS Technology
This letter presents a novel and compact CMOS Geiger-mode single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) device with an efficient guard ring structure for preventing edge breakdown. The new guard ring canExpand
A view on progress of silicon single-photon avalanche diodes and quenching circuits
Silicon Single-Photon Avalanche-Diodes (SPAD) are nowadays considered a solid-state alternative to Photomultiplier Tubes (PMT) in single photon counting (SPC) and time-correlated singleExpand
A CMOS 3-D Imager Based on Single Photon Avalanche Diode
A 64-pixel linear array aimed at 3-D vision applications is implemented in a high-voltage 0.8 mum CMOS technology and for the first time the implementation of an indirect time-of-flight measurement is explored by operating the proposed active pixel in the photon counting mode. Expand
Single photon detector fabricated in a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor high-voltage technology
In this article, a fully integrated single photon detector including a silicon avalanche photodiode and a quenching circuit is presented. The low doping concentrations, inherent to the complementaryExpand
Monolithic CMOS detector module for photon counting and picosecond timing
A monolithic optoelectronic module for counting and timing single optical photons has been designed and fabricated in CMOS technology. It integrates a single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) of 12 /splExpand
A New Generation of SPAD—Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes
Design and characterization of a new generation of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPAD) array, manufactured by ST-Microelectronics in Catania, Italy, are presented. Device performances, investigatedExpand
Fully Integrated Single Photon Avalanche Diode Detector in Standard CMOS 0.18- $\mu$m Technology
Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operating in Geiger mode can detect weak optical signals at high speed. The implementation of APD systems in a CMOS technology makes it possible to integrate theExpand
Single-Photon Avalanche Diode CMOS Sensor for Time-Resolved Fluorescence Measurements
A single-photon avalanche diode-based pixel array for the analysis of fluorescence phenomena is presented. Each 180 times 150 - mum2 pixel integrates a single photon detector combined with an activeExpand
Design and characterization of a CMOS 3-D image sensor based on single photon avalanche diodes
The design and characterization of an imaging system is presented for depth information capture of arbitrary three-dimensional (3-D) objects that is an array of 32 rangefinding pixels that independently measure the time-of-flight of a ray of light as it is reflected back from the objects in a scene. Expand