A life-span theory of control.

@article{Heckhausen1995ALT,
  title={A life-span theory of control.},
  author={Jutta Heckhausen and Robert Schulz},
  journal={Psychological review},
  year={1995},
  volume={102 2},
  pages={
          284-304
        }
}
A life-span theory of development is presented that is based on the concepts of primary and secondary control. Primary control refers to behaviors directed at the external environment and involves attempts to change the world to fit the needs and desires of the individual. Secondary control is targeted at internal processes and serves to minimize losses in, maintain, and expand existing levels of primary control. Secondary control helps the individual to cope with failure and fosters primary… CONTINUE READING
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