A hypothesis-confirming bias in labeling effects.

  title={A hypothesis-confirming bias in labeling effects.},
  author={John M. Darley and Paget H. Gross},
  journal={Journal of Personality and Social Psychology},
The present study examines the process leading to the confirmation of a perceiver's expectancies about another when the social label that created the expectancy provides poor or tentative evidence about another's true dispositions or capabilities. One group of subjects was led to believe that a child came from a high socioeconomic background; the other group, that the child came from a low socioeconomic background. Nothing in the socioeconomic data conveyed information directly relevant to the… 

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