A human homologue of the Drosophila Toll protein signals activation of adaptive immunity

@article{Medzhitov1997AHH,
  title={A human homologue of the Drosophila Toll protein signals activation of adaptive immunity},
  author={Ruslan Medzhitov and Paula Preston-Hurlburt and Charles A. Jr Janeway},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1997},
  volume={388},
  pages={394-397}
}
Induction of the adaptive immune response depends on the expression of co-stimulatory molecules and cytokines by antigen-presenting cells. The mechanisms that control the initial induction of these signals upon infection are poorly understood. It has been proposed that their expression is controlled by the non-clonal, or innate, component of immunity that preceded in evolution the development of an adaptive immune system in vertebrates. We report here the cloning and characterization of a human… 
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