A hominid from the lower Pleistocene of Atapuerca, Spain: possible ancestor to Neandertals and modern humans.

  title={A hominid from the lower Pleistocene of Atapuerca, Spain: possible ancestor to Neandertals and modern humans.},
  author={Jos{\'e} Mar{\'i}a Berm{\'u}dez de Castro and Juan Luis Arsuaga and Eudald Carbonell and Antonio Rosas and Ignacio Mart{\'i}nez and Marina Mosquera},
  volume={276 5317},
Human fossil remains recovered from the TD6 level (Aurora stratum) of the lower Pleistocene cave site of Gran Dolina, Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain, exhibit a unique combination of cranial, mandibular, and dental traits and are suggested as a new species of Homo-H. antecessor sp. nov. The fully modern midfacial morphology of the fossils antedates other evidence of this feature by about 650, 000 years. The midfacial and subnasal morphology of modern humans may be a retention of a juvenile pattern… 

The Atapuerca human fossils

After 20 years of research, the Atapuerca sites have provided a large amount of archaeological and palaeontological remains that represent the last common ancestor of Neandertals and modern humans.

The Gran Dolina-TD6 Human Fossil Remains and the Origin of Neanderthals

It is hypothesize either that there exists a phylogenetic continuity between Homo antecessor and Neanderthals or that both species shared a common ancestor.

The human cranial remains from Gran Dolina Lower Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

The cranial remains of the late Lower Pleistocene human fossils from Gran Dolina, Spain, assigned to the new species Homo antecessor, show a suite of modern human apomorphies not found in earlier hominids nor in contemporary or earlier Homo erectus fossils, reinforcing the hypothesis that Neandertals and modern humans form a clade.

An Early Pleistocene hominin mandible from Atapuerca-TD6, Spain.

None of the mandibular features considered apomorphic in the European Middle and Early Upper Pleistocene hominin lineage are present in ATD6-96, which reinforces the taxonomic identity of H. antecessor and is consistent with the hypothesis of a close relationship between this species and Homo sapiens.

The Atapuerca sites and their contribution to the knowledge of human evolution in Europe

Over the last two decades, the Pleistocene sites of the Sierra de Atapuerca (Spain) have provided two extraordinary assemblages of hominin fossils that have helped refine the evolutionary story of

Homo antecessor: The state of the art eighteen years later

Middle pleistocene humans from africa

This work has shown that a new group of hominids is plausibly ancestral to both the specialized Neanderthals of Europe and more modern humans of the later Middle Pleistocene.



Lower Pleistocene hominids and artifacts from Atapuerca-TD6 (Spain)

The Gran Dolina hominid fossils cannot be comfortably accommodated in any of the defined Homo species, and could be considered a primitive form of Homo heidelbergensis, but a new species might be named in the future if the sample is enlarged.

Seventeen new mandibular specimens from the Atapuerca/Ibeas Middle Pleistocene Hominids sample (1985-1992)

  • A. Rosas
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 1995
Analysis of variability within the Atapuerca sample identifies three categories of traits: invariant traits, size-related traits and size-independent traits, which suggests that the sample most likely derives from a single biological population.

Three new human skulls from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site in Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain

The extensive Atapuerca human collection is the most complete sample of Middle Pleistocene humans yet discovered from one site, and appears to document an early stage in Neanderthal evolution.

A calvarium of lateHomo erectusfrom Ceprano, Italy

Abstract On 13 March 1994, a fragmented, incomplete and highly fossilized, human calvarium was discovered in situ by one of the authors (I.B.) during excavations for the construction of a highway

The human cranium from Bodo, Ethiopia: evidence for speciation in the Middle Pleistocene?

Abstract The cranium found at Bodo in 1976 is derived from Middle Pleistocene deposits containing faunal remains and Acheulean artefacts. A parietal recovered later must belong to a second

Analysis of the dental morphology of Plio-Pleistocene hominids. IV. Mandibular postcanine root morphology.

Annual assessments of the root morphology of the 'robust' australopithecines from Swartkrans suggest that the premolar root form of Australopithecus (Paranthropus) robustus is not obviously intermediate between the presumed ancestral condition, and the 'molarised' mandibular premolars root systems of Australo-Pleistocene hominids.

Origin and evolution of the genus Homo

It is remarkable that the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the earliest known representatives of our own genus, Homo, remain obscure. Advances in techniques for absolute dating and

Aux Origines des Homo sapiens

  • J. J. Hublin and A

Arsuaga eta

  • Rev. Esp. Paleonto/. n~ Extraord
  • 1996